Jonathan D. Gruber

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Butterfly wing color patterns are a key model for integrating evolutionary developmental biology and the study of adaptive morphological evolution. Yet, despite the biological, economical and educational value of butterflies they are still relatively under-represented in terms of available genomic resources. Here, we describe an Expression Sequence Tag(More)
Chronic low-grade activation of the immune system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Interleukin-6 (IL6), a powerful inducer of hepatic acute phase response, has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance and T2DM. Recently, an IL6 promoter polymorphism (G/C) at position −174 was found to be associated with(More)
Differences in gene expression are thought to be an important source of phenotypic diversity, so dissecting the genetic components of natural variation in gene expression is important for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that lead to adaptation. Gene expression is a complex trait that, in diploid organisms, results from transcription of both(More)
BACKGROUND Analysis of genomic sequence allows characterization of genome content and organization, and access beyond gene-coding regions for identification of functional elements. BAC libraries, where relatively large genomic regions are made readily available, are especially useful for species without a fully sequenced genome and can increase genomic(More)
Genetic variation within and between species can be shaped by population-level processes and mutation; however, the relative impact of "survival of the fittest" and "arrival of the fittest" on phenotypic evolution remains unclear. Assessing the influence of mutation on evolution requires understanding the relative rates of different types of mutations and(More)
Linkage analysis has identified a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on chromosome 1q21-q23 in several populations. Results from recent prospective studies indicate that increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of immune system activation, are predictive of diabetes, independent of adiposity. Because CRP is located on(More)
Circulating levels of the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) are elevated in obesity, correlate with body mass index (BMI), and predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A promoter polymorphism in the IL6 gene is associated with obesity, altered levels of insulin sensitivity, and T2DM. IL-6 exerts its effects by binding to the IL-6 receptor(More)
Adiponectin is an abundant adipose tissue-derived protein with important metabolic effects. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and low adiponectin levels predict insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Two variants in the adiponectin gene ACDC have been previously associated with plasma adiponectin levels, obesity, insulin(More)
Genetic variation segregating within a species reflects the combined activities of mutation, selection, and genetic drift. In the absence of selection, polymorphisms are expected to be a random subset of new mutations; thus, comparing the effects of polymorphisms and new mutations provides a test for selection. When evidence of selection exists, such(More)
Currently, the relevance of common genetic variants--particularly those significantly associated with phenotypic variation in laboratory studies--to standing phenotypic variation in the wild is poorly understood. To address this, we quantified the relationship between achaete-scute complex (ASC) polymorphisms and Drosophila bristle number phenotypes in(More)