Jonathan D. Gardner

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One of the famous questions in social science is whether money makes people happy. We offer new evidence by using longitudinal data on a random sample of Britons who receive medium-sized lottery wins of between 1000 pounds and 120,000 pounds (that is, up to approximately US$ 200,000). When compared to two control groups -- one with no wins and the other(More)
The paper studies job satisfaction levels in the advanced nations. There are five main findings. First, the great majority of workers in the industrial democracies appear to be remarkably content with their jobs. The old Dickensian idea that work subjugates people is apparently not supported by the data. Second, job satisfaction is slowly trending down over(More)
The most fundamental idea in economics is that money makes people happy. This paper constructs a test. It studies longitudinal information on the psychological health and reported happiness of approximately 9,000 randomly chosen people. In the spirit of a natural experiment, the paper shows that those in the panel who receive windfalls-by winning lottery(More)
It is believed that the length of a person's life depends on a mixture of economic and social factors. Yet the relative importance of these is still debated. We provide recent British evidence that marriage has a strong positive effect on longevity. Economics matters less. After controlling for health at the start of the 1990s, we cannot find reliable(More)
We are grateful to three anonymous referees for extremely valuable suggestions. The first version of this paper was written in 2002. Opinions in this article are those of individual authors only; they do not necessarily reflect views or policies of Watson Wyatt. For helpful suggestions, we thank Dick Easterlin, Abstract How do workers make wage comparisons?(More)
The paper studies one of the puzzles of modern economics. Why does Western Europe have 20 million unemployed workers? This is more than 10% of the workforce. Yet in the 1950s and 60s, unemployment rates were consistently less than 3%. The paper provides evidence for four ideas*. 1. Unemployed people are very unhappy. 2. Oil prices explain the main cycles in(More)
This paper studies workers' lives in modern Britain. It uses longitudinal data to examine stress and job satisfaction through the decade of the 1990s. The results are disturbing. On both measures, the wellbeing of British public sector workers worsened sharply over the decade. The size of the deterioration was between one half point and one full point on a(More)
How do human beings make wage comparisons? This paper provides empirical support for an approach suggested by the psychologist Allen Parducci. The paper combines an experimental study with an analysis of data on 16,000 British employees. Satisfaction levels are shown to depend not simply upon relative pay but upon an individual's ordinal rank within a(More)
Recalled body weight and self-reported current weight were validated in a longitudinal study population by comparing recalls at 50 y to actual measures taken at ages 18, 30, 40, and 50 y. Recalled body weights were also compared with reported desired weights at these same ages. Self-reported weights at 50 y were equally accurate for both males and females;(More)