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Although pioneered by human geneticists as a potential solution to the challenging problem of finding the genetic basis of common human diseases, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have, owing to advances in genotyping and sequencing technology, become an obvious general approach for studying the genetics of natural variation and traits of agricultural(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to function as second messengers in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. However, the question whether ROS production is indeed required for ABA signal transduction in vivo has not yet been addressed, and the molecular mechanisms mediating ROS production during ABA signaling remain unknown. Here, we(More)
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) are strongly associated with plant defense responses. The origin of these ROI has been controversial. Arabidopsis respiratory burst oxidase homologues (rboh genes) have been proposed to play a role in ROI generation. We analyzed lines carrying dSpm insertions in the highly expressed AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes. Both are(More)
Cell expansion is a central process in plant morphogenesis, and the elongation of roots and root hairs is essential for uptake of minerals and water from the soil. Ca2+ influx from the extracellular store is required for (and sets the rates of) cell elongation in roots. Arabidopsis thaliana rhd2 mutants are defective in Ca2+ uptake and consequently cell(More)
The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), via consumption of oxygen in a so-called oxidative burst, is one of the earliest cellular responses following successful pathogen recognition. Apoplastic generation of superoxide (O 2 2), or its dismutation product hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2), has been documented following recognition of a variety of(More)
Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in(More)
Plants are constantly exposed to environmental changes and have to integrate a variety of biotic and abiotic stress stimuli. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are implicated as important sensors of Ca2+ flux in plants in response to these stresses. CDPKs are encoded by multigene families, and expression levels of these genes are spatially and(More)
We have identified the Arabidopsis ortholog of barley RAR1 as a component of resistance specified by multiple nucleotide binding/Leu-rich repeat resistance (R) genes recognizing different bacterial and oomycete pathogen isolates. Characterization of partially and fully defective rar1 mutations revealed that wild-type RAR1 acts as a rate-limiting regulator(More)
Cytoplasmic plant immune receptors recognize specific pathogen effector proteins and initiate effector-triggered immunity. In Arabidopsis, the immune receptors RPS4 and RRS1 are both required to activate defense to three different pathogens. We show that RPS4 and RRS1 physically associate. Crystal structures of the N-terminal Toll-interleukin-1(More)