Jonathan D. Flax

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Stable clones of neural stem cells (NSCs) have been isolated from the human fetal telencephalon. These self-renewing clones give rise to all fundamental neural lineages in vitro. Following transplantation into germinal zones of the newborn mouse brain they participate in aspects of normal development, including migration along established migratory pathways(More)
Neurons undergoing targeted photolytic cell death degenerate by apoptosis. Clonal, multipotent neural precursor cells were transplanted into regions of adult mouse neocortex undergoing selective degeneration of layer II/III pyramidal neurons via targeted photolysis. These precursors integrated into the regions of selective neuronal death; 15 +/- 7%(More)
Activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway is essential for normal pattern formation and cellular differentiation in the developing CNS. However, it is also thought to be etiological in primitive neuroectodermal tumors. We adapted GAL4/UAS methodology to ectopically express full-length Shh in the dorsal neural tube of transgenic(More)
To delineate the biochemical sequences of myelination in the human brain, we analyzed the protein and lipid composition of white matter in 18 baseline cases ranging in age from midgestation through infancy, the critical period in human myelination when the most rapid changes occur. Three adult cases were used as indices of maturity, and 4 cases with major(More)
Many central nervous system regions at all stages of life contain neural stem cells (NSCs). We explored how these disparate NSC pools might emerge. A traceable clone of human NSCs was implanted intraventricularly to allow its integration into cerebral germinal zones of Old World monkey fetuses. The NSCs distributed into two subpopulations: One contributed(More)
Clonal neural cells with stem-like features integrate appropriately into the developing and degenerating central and peripheral nervous system throughout the neuraxis. In response to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, previously engrafted, integrated, and quiescent clonal neural stem cells (NSCs) transiently re-enter the cell cycle, migrate preferentially to the(More)
In humans, beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit deficiency prevents the formation of a functional beta-hexosaminidase A heterodimer resulting in the severe neurodegenerative disorder, Tay-Sachs disease. To explore the feasibility of using ex vivo gene transfer in this lysosomal storage disease, we produced ecotropic retroviruses encoding the human(More)
Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and(More)
Multipotent neural progenitors and stem cells may integrate appropriately into the developing and degenerating central nervous system. They may also be effective in the replacement of genes, cells, and nondiffusible factors in either a widespread or a more circumscribed manner, depending on the therapeutic demands of the clinical situation. In addition,(More)