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There is much evidence that suggests that freshwater systems are more sensitive to introduced predators than are terrestrial or marine systems. We argue here that this dichotomy reflects widespread naiveté toward introduced predators among freshwater prey. Continental terrestrial animals are seldom naive toward novel predators owing to the homogenizing(More)
The implementation and evaluation of malaria control programs would be greatly facilitated by new tools for the rapid assessment of malaria transmission intensity. Because acquisition and maintenance of antimalarial antibodies depend on exposure to malaria infection, such antibodies might be used as proxy measures of transmission intensity. We have compared(More)
The epidemiology of malaria over small areas remains poorly understood, and this is particularly true for malaria during epidemics in highland areas of Africa, where transmission intensity is low and characterized by acute within and between year variations. We report an analysis of the spatial distribution of clinical malaria during an epidemic and(More)
European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1, genotype 5) is known to endemically circulate in insectivorous bat populations in Germany. In August 2001, a rabies suspect stone marten (Martes foina) was found in the city of Burg (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany) and was sent to the regional veterinary laboratory for routine rabies diagnosis. Whereas brain samples(More)
The public health and economic consequences of Plasmodium falciparum malaria are once again regarded as priorities for global development. There has been much speculation on whether anthropogenic climate change is exacerbating the malaria problem, especially in areas of high altitude where P. falciparum transmission is limited by low temperature. The(More)
Accurate malaria stratification is essential for effective targeting of interventions but represents a particular challenge in pre-elimination settings. In these settings transmission is typically sufficiently low and spatially heterogeneous to warrant a need for estimates of malaria risk at sub-district or village level but is also likely to be(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous, generating malaria hotspots that can fuel malaria transmission across a wider area. Targeting hotspots may represent an efficacious strategy for reducing malaria transmission. We determined the impact of interventions targeted to serologically defined malaria hotspots on malaria transmission both(More)
Five different rabies virus variants were identified among rabies virus-positive samples from Russia, Finland and Estonia, using a panel of five anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies. Two rabies virus isolates showed a different reaction pattern, suggesting the presence of a new antigenic variant. The results were compared with the data obtained by other(More)
CONTEXT There are concerns that malaria control measures such as use of insecticide-treated bed nets, by delaying acquisition of immunity, might result in an increase in the more severe manifestations of malaria. An understanding of the relationships among the level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum, age, and severity of malaria can provide evidence of(More)
BACKGROUND Variation in the risk of malaria within populations is a frequently described but poorly understood phenomenon. This heterogeneity creates opportunities for targeted interventions but only if hot spots of malaria transmission can be easily identified. METHODS We determined spatial patterns in malaria transmission in a district in northeastern(More)