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The implementation and evaluation of malaria control programs would be greatly facilitated by new tools for the rapid assessment of malaria transmission intensity. Because acquisition and maintenance of antimalarial antibodies depend on exposure to malaria infection, such antibodies might be used as proxy measures of transmission intensity. We have compared(More)
There is much evidence that suggests that freshwater systems are more sensitive to introduced predators than are terrestrial or marine systems. We argue here that this dichotomy reflects widespread naiveté toward introduced predators among freshwater prey. Continental terrestrial animals are seldom naive toward novel predators owing to the homogenizing(More)
The epidemiology of malaria over small areas remains poorly understood, and this is particularly true for malaria during epidemics in highland areas of Africa, where transmission intensity is low and characterized by acute within and between year variations. We report an analysis of the spatial distribution of clinical malaria during an epidemic and(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal and perinatal mortality could be reduced if all women delivered in settings where skilled attendants could provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC) if complications arise. Research on determinants of skilled attendance at delivery has focussed on household and individual factors, neglecting the influence of the health service environment,(More)
CONTEXT There are concerns that malaria control measures such as use of insecticide-treated bed nets, by delaying acquisition of immunity, might result in an increase in the more severe manifestations of malaria. An understanding of the relationships among the level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum, age, and severity of malaria can provide evidence of(More)
The S108N, C59R, and N51I mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum gene that encodes dihydrofolate reductase, dhfr, confer resistance to pyrimethamine and are common in Africa. However, the I164L mutation, which confers high-level resistance, is rarely seen. We found a 14% prevalence of the I164L mutation among a sample of 51 patients with malaria in Kabale(More)
BACKGROUND Effective malaria control requires information about intensity of transmission across large areas and populations. Estimates based on entomological factors lack precision and are not cost-effective to obtain. We tested altitude and rainfall measurements as correlates of transmission intensity in different ecological settings. METHODS We(More)
West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time(More)
Climate has a significant impact on malaria incidence and we have predicted that forecast climate changes might cause some modifications to the present global distribution of malaria close to its present boundaries. However, it is quite another matter to attribute recent resurgences of malaria in the highlands of East Africa to climate change. Analyses of(More)
BACKGROUND Variation in the risk of malaria within populations is a frequently described but poorly understood phenomenon. This heterogeneity creates opportunities for targeted interventions but only if hot spots of malaria transmission can be easily identified. METHODS We determined spatial patterns in malaria transmission in a district in northeastern(More)