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We have used immunofluorescence and immunoblotting methods to study the amount and distribution of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in rat skeletal muscle; this molecule is thought to mediate adhesion of neurons to cultured myotubes. N-CAM is present on the surface of embryonic myotubes, but it is lost as development proceeds and is nearly absent(More)
Alcohol dependence is a highly prevalent disorder that is associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Because the GABAA neurotransmitter receptor is an important mediator for several behavioral effects of alcohol, genes encoding GABA-related proteins are functional candidates to influence risk of alcohol dependence. Two genome-wide scans showed linkage(More)
Previous studies of denervated and cultured muscle have shown that the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in muscle is regulated by the muscle's state of innervation and that N-CAM might mediate some developmentally important nerve-muscle interactions. As a first step in learning whether N-CAM might regulate or be regulated by(More)
Levels of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM in muscle are regulated in parallel with the susceptibility of muscle to innervation: N-CAM is abundant on the surface of early embryonic myotubes, declines in level as development proceeds, reappears when adult muscles are denervated or paralyzed, and is lost after reinnervation (Covault, J., and J. R.(More)
Non-coding regulatory elements can transduce the human genome's response to environmental stimuli. Thus, there is a possibility that variation in non-coding regulatory elements may underlie some of the diversity in human behavior. However, this idea has remained largely untested due to the difficulty in accurately identifying regulatory elements in the 98%(More)
Following an initial report, there have been multiple replications of an association of alcohol dependence (AD) to markers within a haplotype block that includes the 3'-half of the gene encoding the GABA(A) alpha-2 subunit (GABRA2), on chromosome 4p. We examined the intergenic extent of this haplotype block and the association to AD of markers in the(More)
The neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is present in both embryonic and perinatal muscle, but its distribution changes as myoblasts form myotubes and axons establish synapses (Covault, J., and J. R. Sanes, 1986, J. Cell Biol., 102:716-730). Levels of N-CAM decline postnatally but increase when adult muscle is denervated or paralyzed (Covault, J., and J.(More)
GABA(A) receptors are involved in the subjective effects of alcohol. Endogenous neuroactive steroids interact with GABA(A) receptors to mediate several behavioral effects of alcohol in rodents. Based on a haplotypic association of alcohol dependence with the gene encoding the GABA(A) receptor alpha-2 subunit (GABRA2), we examined whether GABRA2 alleles are(More)
BACKGROUND GABAA receptors are an important site of action of endogenous neurosteroids and an important mediator of several behavioral effects of alcohol. This study examined the effects of alcohol on plasma steroid hormone concentrations on the hypothesis that the endocrine effects mediate some of the subjective effects of alcohol. METHODS Thirty-two(More)
Little is known about the effects of exercise training on neuromuscular junction morphology in skeletal muscle. The objectives of this investigation were: 1) to determine if exercise training would elicit changes in neuromuscular junction morphology, 2) to determine if exercise training of different intensities would evoke specific changes in neuromuscular(More)