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Alcohol dependence is a highly prevalent disorder that is associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Because the GABAA neurotransmitter receptor is an important mediator for several behavioral effects of alcohol, genes encoding GABA-related proteins are functional candidates to influence risk of alcohol dependence. Two genome-wide scans showed linkage(More)
Previous studies of denervated and cultured muscle have shown that the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in muscle is regulated by the muscle's state of innervation and that N-CAM might mediate some developmentally important nerve-muscle interactions. As a first step in learning whether N-CAM might regulate or be regulated by(More)
Levels of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM in muscle are regulated in parallel with the susceptibility of muscle to innervation: N-CAM is abundant on the surface of early embryonic myotubes, declines in level as development proceeds, reappears when adult muscles are denervated or paralyzed, and is lost after reinnervation (Covault, J., and J. R.(More)
Non-coding regulatory elements can transduce the human genome's response to environmental stimuli. Thus, there is a possibility that variation in non-coding regulatory elements may underlie some of the diversity in human behavior. However, this idea has remained largely untested due to the difficulty in accurately identifying regulatory elements in the 98%(More)
Following an initial report, there have been multiple replications of an association of alcohol dependence (AD) to markers within a haplotype block that includes the 3'-half of the gene encoding the GABA(A) alpha-2 subunit (GABRA2), on chromosome 4p. We examined the intergenic extent of this haplotype block and the association to AD of markers in the(More)
GABA(A) receptors are involved in the subjective effects of alcohol. Endogenous neuroactive steroids interact with GABA(A) receptors to mediate several behavioral effects of alcohol in rodents. Based on a haplotypic association of alcohol dependence with the gene encoding the GABA(A) receptor alpha-2 subunit (GABRA2), we examined whether GABRA2 alleles are(More)
We have used immunofluorescence and immunoblotting methods to study the amount and distribution of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) in rat skeletal muscle; this molecule is thought to mediate adhesion of neurons to cultured myotubes. N-CAM is present on the surface of embryonic myotubes, but it is lost as development proceeds and is nearly absent(More)
BACKGROUND GABAA receptors are an important site of action of endogenous neurosteroids and an important mediator of several behavioral effects of alcohol. This study examined the effects of alcohol on plasma steroid hormone concentrations on the hypothesis that the endocrine effects mediate some of the subjective effects of alcohol. METHODS Thirty-two(More)
Using monoclonal antibody and cDNA probes, we have studied N-cadherin gene expression in developing and adult chick skeletal muscle. N-cadherin was expressed by developing myotubes during the period of initial nerve-muscle contact but was downregulated within days of innervation. Treatment of embryos with d-tubocurare partially reversed this downregulation.(More)
BACKGROUND A common functional polymorphism, 5-HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter gene has been associated with heavy drinking in college students. We examined this polymorphism as it interacted with negative life events to predict drinking and drug use in college students. METHODS Daily reports of drinking and drug use obtained using a daily web-based(More)