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Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be categorised into at least three types, based upon their neurotrophin requirement for survival. We have analysed the expression of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) in NGF, NT-3 and BDNF dependent neurons isolated from embryonic day (E)13.5 mouse DRG. We show that each population(More)
Retinoic acid, acting through the nuclear retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), stimulates neurite outgrowth from peripheral nervous system tissue that has the capacity to regenerate neurites, namely, embryonic and adult dorsal root ganglia. Similarly, in central nervous system tissue that can regenerate, namely, embryonic mouse spinal cord, retinoic(More)
The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α system plays a key role in the adult brain, participating in the homeostatic control of synaptic plasticity, essential for memory function. Here we show that RARα signalling is down-regulated by amyloid beta (Aβ), which inhibits the synthesis of the endogenous ligand, retinoic acid (RA). This results in the counteraction(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain, neuronal cell loss and cognitive decline. We show here that retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α signalling in vitro can prevent both intracellular and extracellular Aβ accumulation. RARα signalling increases the expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10, an α-secretase(More)
After spinal cord injury in the adult mammal, axons do not normally regrow and this commonly leads to paralysis. Retinoic acid (RA) can stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro of both the embryonic central and peripheral nervous system, via activation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta2. We show here that regions of the adult CNS, including the(More)
Many studies have shown a role of retinoid signalling in neurite outgrowth in vitro, and that the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta2 is critical for this process. We show here that RARbeta2 is expressed predominantly in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuronal subtypes that express neurofilament (NF) 200 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and that these(More)
Fires in urban areas can cause significant economic, physical and psychological damage. Despite this, there has been a comparative lack of research into the spatial and temporal analysis of fire incidence in urban contexts. In this paper, we redress this gap through an exploration of the association of fire incidence to weather, calendar events and(More)
We have disrupted the retinoid signalling pathway in adult rats by a dietary deficiency of vitamin A. After 1 year of this dietary deficiency, there was a deposition of amyloid beta in the cerebral blood vessels. There is a downregulation of retinoic acid receptor alpha in the forebrain neurons of the retinoid-deficient rats and a loss of choline acetyl(More)
The embryonic CNS readily undergoes regeneration, unlike the adult CNS, which has limited axonal repair after injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), critical in development for neuronal growth, may enable adult neurons to grow in an inhibitory environment. Overexpression of RARbeta2 in adult rat dorsal root(More)