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BACKGROUND Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research. OBJECTIVES To quantify the effects of strategies to improve recruitment of participants to randomised controlled trials. SEARCH STRATEGY We searched the Cochrane Methodology(More)
BACKGROUND Overactive bladder syndrome is defined as "urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia". It is a common condition with significant economic and quality of life implications. While the condition's pathophysiology remains to be fully elucidated, pharmacotherapy is the main treatment option. Despite uncertainty as(More)
Several protein toxins, including the A chain of ricin (RTA), enter mammalian cells by endocytosis and subsequently reach their cytosolic substrates by translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. To achieve this export, such toxins exploit the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway but must escape, at least in part, the normal(More)
Steady-state anisotropy of DPH incorporated in KRMs-For the incorporation of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) into KRMs, 0.5 µl of a 100 µM DPH (dissolved in dimethylformamide) solution was added to 200 µl of KRMs (20 eq.) in buffer H. These conditions kept the amount of organic solvent added to the KRMs to a minimum (0.25 % of final volume). The KRM-DPH(More)
The plant cytotoxin ricin enters target mammalian cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and undergoes retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, its catalytic A chain (RTA) is reductively separated from the cell-binding B chain, and free RTA enters the cytosol where it inactivates ribosomes. Cytosolic entry requires unfolding of RTA and(More)
Recombination in enteroviruses provides an evolutionary mechanism for acquiring extensive regions of novel sequence, is suggested to have a role in genotype diversity and is known to have been key to the emergence of novel neuropathogenic variants of poliovirus. Despite the importance of this evolutionary mechanism, the recombination process remains(More)
Ricin is a potent A-B toxin that is transported from the cell surface to the cytosol, where it inactivates ribosomes, leading to cell death. Ricin enters cells via endocytosis, where only a minute number of ricin molecules reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. Subsequently, the ricin A chain traverses the ER bilayer by a process referred to as(More)
Until recently, adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene therapy was almost exclusively based on human Ad type 5 (Ad5). Preexisting immunity and the limited, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-dependent tropism of Ad5 stimulated attempts to exploit the natural diversity in tropism of the other 50 known human Ad serotypes. Aiming in particular at immunotherapy and(More)
BACKGROUND The quantified self, self-monitoring or life-logging movement is a trend to incorporate technology into data acquisition on aspects of a person's daily life in terms of inputs (eg food consumed), states (eg mood), and performance (mental and physical). Consumer self-monitoring mobile phone apps have been widely studied and used to promote healthy(More)