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Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause(More)
BACKGROUND Objective methods can improve accuracy of physical activity measurement in field studies but uncertainties remain about their use. METHODS Children age 11 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were asked to wear a uni-axial accelerometer (MTI Actigraph) for 7 days. RESULTS Of 7159 children who attended for(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and(More)
Hominin evolutionary history is characterized by regular dispersals, cycles of colonization, and entry into novel environments. This article considers the relationship between such colonizing capacity and hominin biology. In general, colonizing strategy favors rapid rates of reproduction and generalized rather than specialized biology. Physiological(More)
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious(More)
AIMS To assess the acceptability and feasibility of whole body air displacement plethysmography in children and to determine its precision and agreement with hydrodensitometry, an appropriate reference method. METHODS Age specific two component model equations were used to predict fat mass from body density in 22 children aged 8-12 years and in 10 adults(More)
The present study aimed to evaluate evidence on metabolisable energy consumption and pattern of consumption with age in infants in the developed world who were exclusively breast-fed, at around the time of introducing complementary feeding. We carried out a systematic review aimed at answering three questions: how much milk is transferred from mother to(More)
The weak electric organ discharges (EODs) of gymnotiform knife fishes can be readily amplified with a wideband amplifier connected to submerged electrodes. The output from such an amplifier can then be monitored with audio speakers or digitized for subsequent analysis. Commercially available devices are expensive and usually require mains electrical power.(More)
Early-life growth patterns predict subsequent disease risk. The ontogenetic development of body composition appears to play a key role in such associations, but details have only recently begun to emerge. Studies in diverse populations consistently associate birthweight with subsequent lean mass. Associations with subsequent adiposity show less consistency,(More)