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BACKGROUND Previous studies have been unable to characterise the association between physical activity and obesity, possibly because most relied on inaccurate measures of physical activity and obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS We carried out a cross sectional analysis on 5,500 12-year-old children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and(More)
Hominin evolutionary history is characterized by regular dispersals, cycles of colonization, and entry into novel environments. This article considers the relationship between such colonizing capacity and hominin biology. In general, colonizing strategy favors rapid rates of reproduction and generalized rather than specialized biology. Physiological(More)
CNS injury is often localized but can be followed by more widespread secondary degenerative events that usually result in greater functional loss. Using a partial transection model in rat optic nerve (ON). we recently demonstrated in vivo increases in the oxidative stress-associated enzyme MnSOD 5 min after injury. However, mechanisms by which early(More)
Human foetuses have been proposed to make 'predictive adaptive responses' during pregnancy, to adapt metabolic profile in anticipation of conditions expected in adulthood. Predictive adaptive responses are invoked in particular to explain associations between early-life experience and risk of the metabolic syndrome, although the concept is problematic on(More)
The weak electric organ discharges (EODs) of gymnotiform knife fishes can be readily amplified with a wideband amplifier connected to submerged electrodes. The output from such an amplifier can then be monitored with audio speakers or digitized for subsequent analysis. Commercially available devices are expensive and usually require mains electrical power.(More)
The concept of the thrifty phenotype, first proposed by Hales and Barker, is now widely used in medical research, often in contrast to the thrifty genotype model, to interpret associations between early-life experience and adult health status. Several evolutionary models of the thrifty phenotype, which refers to developmental plasticity, have been(More)
There is a growing interest in evolutionary models of human adiposity. Frequent reference has been made to 'thrifty genes' or 'thrifty phenotypes', referring to a variety of metabolic or behavioural traits that in one or the other way imply frugality in the expenditure or storage of energy. However, there is confusion over how the strategy of thrift has(More)
BACKGROUND Early menarche tends to be preceded by rapid infancy weight gain and is associated with increased childhood and adult obesity risk. As age at menarche is a heritable trait, we hypothesised that age at menarche in the mother may in turn predict her children's early growth and obesity risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS We tested associations between(More)
BACKGROUND & METHODS To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and maternally-rated infant temperament at age 3 months, 316 infants in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study, UK had infant temperament assessed at age 3 months by mothers using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire, which produces scores for three main dimensions of(More)