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BACKGROUND The Rho family GTPases Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA regulate the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton induced by extracellular signals such as growth factors. In mammalian cells, Cdc42 regulates the formation of filopodia, whereas Rac regulates lamellipodia formation and membrane ruffling, and RhoA regulates the formation of stress fibers. Recently,(More)
The morphogenesis of dendritic spines, the major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, is important in synaptic development and plasticity. We have identified an ephrinB-EphB receptor trans-synaptic signaling pathway which regulates the morphogenesis and maturation of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. Activation of the EphB receptor(More)
The p21 (Cdc42/Rac) activated kinase Pak1 regulates cell morphology and polarity in most, if not all, eukaryotic cells. We and others have established that Pak's effects on these parameters are mediated by changes in the organization of cortical actin. Because cell motility requires polarized rearrangements of the actin/myosin cytoskeleton, we examined the(More)
p21-activated kinases (Paks) are effectors of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, and are thought to mediate some of the cytoskeletal and transcriptional activities of these proteins. To localize activated Pak1 in cells, we developed an antibody directed against a phosphopeptide that is contained within the activation loop of Pak1. This antibody specifically(More)
During embryogenesis, melanoblasts proliferate and migrate ventrally through the developing dermis and epidermis as single cells. Targeted deletion of Rac1 in melanoblasts during embryogenesis causes defects in migration, cell-cycle progression, and cytokinesis. Rac1 null cells migrate markedly less efficiently, but surprisingly, global steering, crossing(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) 1B has long been known to regulate cell proliferation negatively, but the mechanism by which this inhibition occurs is poorly defined. We have shown previously that PTP1B binds to, and dephosphorylates, p130(Cas) (Crk-associated substrate) [1], a protein that is thought to play a role in integrin signaling [2,3]. In this(More)
The process of macropinocytosis is an essential aspect of normal cell function, contributing to both growth and motile processes of cells. p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are targets for activated Rac and Cdc42 guanosine 5'-triphosphatases and have been shown to regulate the actin-myosin cytoskeleton. In fibroblasts PAK1 localizes to areas of membrane(More)
DNA in eukaryotic cells is associated with histone proteins; hence, hallmark properties of apoptosis, such as chromatin condensation, may be regulated by posttranslational histone modifications. Here we report that phosphorylation of histone H2B at serine 14 (S14) correlates with cells undergoing programmed cell death in vertebrates. We identify a 34 kDa(More)
The Rac guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins regulate oxidant production by phagocytic leukocytes. Two Ste20-related p21-activated kinases (PAKs) were identified as targets of Rac in human neutrophils. Activity of the approximately 65- and approximately 68-kilodalton PAKs was rapidly stimulated by chemoattractants acting through pertussis(More)