Learn More
BACKGROUND The Rho family GTPases Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA regulate the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton induced by extracellular signals such as growth factors. In mammalian cells, Cdc42 regulates the formation of filopodia, whereas Rac regulates lamellipodia formation and membrane ruffling, and RhoA regulates the formation of stress fibers. Recently,(More)
Autoregulatory domains found within kinases may provide more unique targets for chemical inhibitors than the conserved ATP-binding pocket targeted by most inhibitors. The kinase Pak1 contains an autoinhibitory domain that suppresses the catalytic activity of its kinase domain. Pak1 activators relieve this autoinhibition and initiate conformational(More)
The morphogenesis of dendritic spines, the major sites of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain, is important in synaptic development and plasticity. We have identified an ephrinB-EphB receptor trans-synaptic signaling pathway which regulates the morphogenesis and maturation of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. Activation of the EphB receptor(More)
The stress-activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase defines a subgroup of the mammalian MAP kinases that appear to play a key role in regulating inflammatory responses. Co-expression of constitutively active forms of Rac and Cdc42 leads to activation of p38 while dominant negative Rac and Cdc42 inhibit the ability of interleukin-1 to increase(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an abundant intracellular enzyme that is thought to act as a negative regulator of certain signaling pathways. The C terminus of PTP1B contains two proline-rich regions which conform to the canonical class II Src homology 3 domain binding motif, Pro-X-X-Pro-X-Arg. In this study, we establish that PTP1B interacts(More)
The p21 (Cdc42/Rac) activated kinase Pak1 regulates cell morphology and polarity in most, if not all, eukaryotic cells. We and others have established that Pak's effects on these parameters are mediated by changes in the organization of cortical actin. Because cell motility requires polarized rearrangements of the actin/myosin cytoskeleton, we examined the(More)
The p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs) are members of a growing family of regulatory enzymes that may play roles in diverse phenomena such as cellular morphogenesis, the stress response and the pathogenesis of AIDS. PAKs were initially discovered as binding partners for small (21 kDa) GTPases that regulate actin polymerization, and recent evidence has(More)
We have isolated a novel member of the mammalian PAK (p21 activated kinase) and yeast Ste20 serine/threonine kinase family from a mouse fibroblast cDNA library, designated mPAK-3. Expression of mPAK-3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae partially restores mating function in ste20 null cells. Like other PAKs, mPAK-3 contains a putative Cdc42Hs/Rac binding sequence(More)
p21-activated kinases (Paks) are effectors of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, and are thought to mediate some of the cytoskeletal and transcriptional activities of these proteins. To localize activated Pak1 in cells, we developed an antibody directed against a phosphopeptide that is contained within the activation loop of Pak1. This antibody specifically(More)
The human serine/threonine protein kinases, Mst1 and Mst2, share considerable homology to Ste20 and p21-activated kinase (Pak) throughout their catalytic domains. However, outside the catalytic domains there are no significant homologies to previously described Ste20-like kinases or other proteins. To understand the role of the nonhomologous regions, we(More)