Jonathan Burns

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OBJECTIVE There has been a recent increase in interest in antenatal depression, which is associated with adverse obstetric, neonatal and maternal outcomes and has been overlooked and underdiagnosed. Local data on prevalence and risk factors are lacking. AIM To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a(More)
Schizophrenia is a worldwide, prevalent disorder with a multifactorial but highly genetic aetiology. A constant prevalence rate in the face of reduced fecundity has caused some to argue that an evolutionary advantage exists in unaffected relatives. Here, I critique this adaptationist approach, and review--and find wanting--Crow's "speciation" hypothesis. In(More)
The social brain hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding schizophrenia. It focuses attention on the core Bleulerian concept of autistic alienation and is consistent with well-replicated findings of social brain dysfunction in schizophrenia as well as contemporary theories of human cognitive and brain evolution. The contributions of Heidegger,(More)
It is now commonly accepted that a range of psychosocial and environmental factors interact with genetic vulnerability in the genesis of psychotic illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether measures of poverty and income inequality impact upon the treated incidence of first-episode psychosis (FEP) in the District of Umgungundlovu, South(More)
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited disease affecting approximately 1:4000 individuals in North America. It is characterized clinically by the gradual apoptotic death of photoreceptor cells that occurs nonuniformly across the surface of the retina. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the time of death of many individual photoreceptors is random, a(More)
BACKGROUND Causal belief systems and help-seeking practices may impact on pathway to care and features of first-episode psychosis (FEP) that have prognostic value. This is particularly relevant in South Africa where many people subscribe to traditional belief systems and consult traditional healers. AIM To evaluate the relationship between causal(More)
Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population. Furthermore, the experience of persons with mental disability is one characterized by multiple interlinked levels of inequality(More)
There is limited evidence on the acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of task-sharing interventions to narrow the treatment gap for mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, aims and methods of the Africa Focus on Intervention Research for Mental health (AFFIRM) collaborative research hub.(More)
BACKGROUND Social inclusion is increasingly recognized as a key outcome for evaluating global mental health programmes and interventions. Whereas social inclusion as an outcome is not a new concept in the field of mental health, its measurement has been hampered by varying definitions, concepts and instruments. To move the field forward, this paper reviews(More)
BACKGROUND As neuropsychiatric disorders account for a great proportion of the total burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa, depression is rapidly emerging as a public health issue in South Africa. Given the divisions enforced by a legacy of the apartheid spatial and economic policies, features of communities such as neighborhood-level social capital may(More)