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Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a global public health problem, has for decades been attributed solely to declining estrogen levels. Although FSH levels rise sharply in parallel, a direct effect of FSH on the skeleton has never been explored. We show that FSH is required for hypogonadal bone loss. Neither FSHbeta nor FSH receptor (FSHR) null mice have bone(More)
Altered intestinal O-glycan expression has been observed in patients with ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer, but the role of this alteration in the etiology of these diseases is unknown. O-glycans in mucin core proteins are the predominant components of the intestinal mucus, which comprises part of the intestinal mucosal barrier. Core 3-derived(More)
Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) is an enzyme that is responsible for the synthesis of the H antigen in body fluids and on the intestinal mucosa. The H antigen is an oligosaccharide moiety that acts as both an attachment site and carbon source for intestinal bacteria. Non-secretors, who are homozygous for the loss-of-function alleles of FUT2 gene (sese), have(More)
Some peripheral neurons, previously identified as candidate guidance cells for axonal outgrowth along the segmental nerves in embryos of the glossiphoniid leech Helobdella triserialis, were photoablated by laser illumination to ascertain whether their presence is necessary for generation of the normal axonal growth pattern. These experiments showed that(More)
BACKGROUND Consistent compositional shifts in the gut microbiota are observed in IBD and other chronic intestinal disorders and may contribute to pathogenesis. The identities of microbial biomolecular mechanisms and metabolic products responsible for disease phenotypes remain to be determined, as do the means by which such microbial functions may be(More)
Commensal bacteria have emerged as an important disease factor in human Crohn's disease (CD) and murine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) models. We recently isolated I2, a novel gene segment of microbial origin that is associated with human CD and that encodes a T-cell superantigen. To identify the I2 microorganism, BLAST analysis was used to identify a(More)
Studies that elucidate why some human tissues age faster than others may shed light on how we age, and ultimately suggest what interventions may be possible. Here we utilize a recent biomarker of aging (referred to as epigenetic clock) to assess the epigenetic ages of up to 30 anatomic sites from supercentenarians (subjects who reached an age of 110 or(More)
BACKGROUND Regardless of infection route, the intestine is the primary site for HIV-1 infection establishment and results in significant mucosal CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion, induces an inflammatory state that propagates viral dissemination, facilitates microbial translocation, and fosters establishment of one of the largest HIV reservoirs. Here we test the(More)
Aberrant interactions between the host and the intestinal bacteria are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of many digestive diseases. However, studying the complex ecosystem at the human mucosal-luminal interface (MLI) is challenging and requires an integrative systems biology approach. Therefore, we developed a novel method integrating lavage(More)
Abnormalities of the intestinal microbiota are implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), two spectra of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the high complexity and low inter-individual overlap of intestinal microbial composition are formidable barriers to identifying microbial taxa representing this(More)