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PURPOSE The electrical impedance of detrusor smooth muscle strips to alternating current has been measured to calculate the resistance of the intracellular pathway, in particular gap junction resistance. Values have been compared with myocardium, which is electrically well-coupled. MATERIALS AND METHODS Alternating current was passed along the(More)
AIM To provide a comprehensive review of the current evidence on post-stroke urinary incontinence. METHOD An electronic database search was performed to identify relevant studies and review articles related to Urinary Incontinence (UI) in the stroke population between the years 1966 and 2012. FINDINGS Urinary incontinence following stroke is a common(More)
The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well known but the relationship between hypertension and cognitive function is controversial. This article reviews the role of hypertension in the aetiology of cognitive impairment and the relationships between BP, cerebral perfusion and cognition. It also summarizes findings of(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a controlled-release (CR) formulation of oxybutynin with that of conventional oxybutynin in patients with detrusor instability or detrusor hyper-reflexia whose symptoms were stabilized on conventional oral oxybutynin tablets. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study comprised a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial(More)
The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well-known and recent studies suggest that lowering of BP in patients who may already be in the normotensive range further reduces the risk of vascular events, particularly stroke. Epidemiological data have also shown that lower BP and antihypertensive treatment may be associated(More)
BACKGROUND Determining whether the distribution of stroke subtypes differs between ethnic groups is important in understanding the mechanisms of the increased stroke incidence in black patients. METHODS AND RESULTS In this study, 600 black and 600 white patients with stroke were prospectively and consecutively recruited to determine differences in stroke(More)
OBJECTIVE To review systematically and synthesize quantitatively the evidence from completed randomized, controlled trials of blood pressure reduction on cognitive performance. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials that measured the effect of blood pressure reduction on cognitive(More)