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A central challenge for predators is achieving positive energy balance when prey are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Ecological heterogeneity produces evolutionary trade-offs in the physiological design of predators; this is because the ability to capitalize on pulses of food abundance requires high capacity for food-processing, yet maintaining such(More)
When resources are spatially and temporally variable, consumers can increase their foraging success by moving to track ephemeral feeding opportunities as these shift across the landscape; the best examples derive from herbivore-plant systems, where grazers migrate to capitalize on the seasonal waves of vegetation growth. We evaluated whether analogous(More)
1. Large digestive organs increase rates of energy gain when food is plentiful but are costly to maintain and increase rates of energy loss when food is scarce. The physiological adaptations to this trade-off differ depending on the scale and predictability of variation in food abundance. 2. Currently, there is little understanding of how animals balance(More)
Spatial and temporal heterogeneity interact to make the foraging rates of individuals more variable than expected from models assuming that spatial and temporal dimensions of habitat conditions operate independently. For example, trophic resource pulses produce temporal patches of prey superabundance, yet little is known about how spatial heterogeneity in(More)
Habitat heterogeneity can generate intraspecific diversity through local adaptation of populations. While it is becoming increasingly clear that population diversity can increase stability in species abundance, less is known about how population diversity can benefit consumers that can integrate across population diversity in their prey. Here we demonstrate(More)
T he greatest challenges in ecology and evolution are in understanding how physical and biological processes that play out over extensive spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales interact to affect the dynamics of genes, phenotypes, populations, and ecosystems. The fact that many biological properties are " scale-dependent " has been recognized for decades;(More)
A key constraint faced by consumers is achieving a positive energy balance in the face of temporal variation in foraging opportunities. Recent work has shown that spatial heterogeneity in resource phenology can buffer mobile consumers from this constraint by allowing them to track changes in resource availability across space. For example, salmon(More)
Vertical heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of lakes and oceans is ecologically salient and exploited by a wide range of taxa through diel vertical migration to enhance their growth and survival. Whether analogous behaviors exploit horizontal habitat heterogeneity in streams is largely unknown. We investigated fish movement behavior at daily(More)
A critical challenge for ecologists is to understand the functional significance of habitat heterogeneity and connectivity for mobile animals. Here, we explore how a thermo-regulating fish responds to annual variation in the spatial patterning of thermal and trophic resources. In a third-order stream in coastal Alaska, juvenile coho salmon forage on sockeye(More)
1. Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio(More)