Jonathan Armstrong

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A central challenge for predators is achieving positive energy balance when prey are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Ecological heterogeneity produces evolutionary trade-offs in the physiological design of predators; this is because the ability to capitalize on pulses of food abundance requires high capacity for food-processing, yet maintaining such(More)
Vertical heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of lakes and oceans is ecologically salient and exploited by a wide range of taxa through diel vertical migration to enhance their growth and survival. Whether analogous behaviors exploit horizontal habitat heterogeneity in streams is largely unknown. We investigated fish movement behavior at daily(More)
T he greatest challenges in ecology and evolution are in understanding how physical and biological processes that play out over extensive spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales interact to affect the dynamics of genes, phenotypes, populations, and ecosystems. The fact that many biological properties are " scale-dependent " has been recognized for decades;(More)
A critical challenge for ecologists is to understand the functional significance of habitat heterogeneity and connectivity for mobile animals. Here, we explore how a thermo-regulating fish responds to annual variation in the spatial patterning of thermal and trophic resources. In a third-order stream in coastal Alaska, juvenile coho salmon forage on sockeye(More)
1. Quantifying the variability in the delivery of ecosystem services across the landscape can be used to set appropriate management targets, evaluate resilience and target conservation efforts. Ecosystem functions and services may exhibit portfolio-type dynamics, whereby diversity within lower levels promotes stability at more aggregated levels. Portfolio(More)
The objectives of this investigation were to develop a scale to measure attitudes towards animal use, decide upon the number of dimensions or scales needed, and test the reliability and validity of the dimension(s) obtained. Analysis showed the final scale to be unidimensional with evidence of reliability (Cronbach alpha = .99) and criterion validity via(More)
Daily movements of mobile organisms between habitats in response to changing trade-offs between predation risk and foraging gains are well established; however, less in known about whether similar tactics are used during reproduction, a time period when many organisms are particularly vulnerable to predators. We investigated the reproductive behaviour of(More)
As climate change increases maximal water temperatures, behavioural thermoregulation may be crucial for the persistence of coldwater fishes, such as salmonids. Although myriad studies have documented behavioural thermoregulation in southern populations of salmonids, few if any have explored this phenomenon in northern populations, which are less likely to(More)