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We report a multiscale study in the Wind River Valley in southwestern Washington, where we quantified leaf to stand scale variation in spectral reflectance for dominant species. Four remotely sensed structural measures, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cover fractions from spectral mixture analysis (SMA), equivalent water thickness (EWT),(More)
Uphill shifts of species' distributions in response to historical warming are well documented, which leads to widespread expectations of continued uphill shifts under future warming. Conversely, downhill shifts are often considered anomalous and unrelated to climate change. By comparing the altitudinal distributions of 64 plant species between the 1930s and(More)
The mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and hypervariable segment I (HVSI) sequences of 1,612 and 395 Native North Americans, respectively, were analyzed to identify major prehistoric population events in North America. Gene maps and spatial autocorrelation analyses suggest that populations with high frequencies of haplogroups A, B, and X experienced prehistoric(More)
Human population and economic growth are accelerating the demand for plant biomass to provide food, fuel, and fiber. The annual increment of biomass to meet these needs is quantified as net primary production (NPP). Here we show that an underlying assumption in some current models may lead to underestimates of the potential production from managed(More)
Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water. Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems ("critical" or "trap" problems)(More)
Mindfulness practice has been linked to reduced depressive rumination and described as involving inhibition of information that has been relevant in the past and is no longer relevant in the present moment. Backward inhibition (BI) is considered to be one of the purest measures of task set inhibition, and impaired BI has been linked to depressive(More)
Spatial interpolation allows creation of continuous raster surfaces from a subsample of point-based measurements. Most interpolation approaches use Euclidean distance measurements between data points to generate predictions of values at unknown locations. However, there are many spatially distributed data sets that are not properly represented by Euclidean(More)
Increasing demands on the accuracy and thematic resolution of vegetation community maps from remote sensing imagery has created a need for novel image analysis techniques. We present a case study for vegetation mapping of the Lake Tahoe Basin which fulfills many of the requirements of the Federal Geographic Data Committee base-level mapping (FGDC, 1997) by(More)
Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are(More)
BACKGROUND Retrieval of opposite mood autobiographical memories serves emotion regulation, yet the factors influencing this ability are poorly understood. METHODS Three studies examined the effect of mood valence (sad vs. happy) and degree of emotional engagement on fluency of mood incongruent retrieval by manipulating emotional engagement and examining(More)