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Intestinal epithelial stem cell identity and location have been the subject of substantial research. Cells in the +4 niche are slow-cycling and label-retaining, whereas a different stem cell niche located at the crypt base is occupied by crypt base columnar (CBC) cells. CBCs are distinct from +4 cells, and the relationship between them is unknown, though(More)
Pax genes encode a family of developmentally regulated transcription factors that have been implicated in a number of human and murine congenital disorders, as well as in tumorigenesis (Gruss, P., and Walther, C. (1992) Cell 69, 719-722; Hill, R., and van Heyningen, V. (1992) Trends Genet. 8, 119-120; Chalepakis, G., Tremblay, P., and Gruss, P. (1992) J.(More)
The zebrafish is an excellent genetic system for the study of vertebrate development and disease. In an effort to provide a rapid and robust tool for zebrafish gene mapping, a panel of radiation hybrids (RH) was produced by fusion of irradiated zebrafish AB9 cells with mouse B78 cells. The overall retention of zebrafish sequences in the 93 RH cell lines(More)
Vertebrate Pax proteins share a conserved 128-amino-acid DNA-binding motif, the paired domain. The PAX6 gene, which is mutated in the murine Small eye and human aniridia developmental defects, also encodes a second protein with a 14-amino-acid insertion in the paired domain. This protein, which arises by alternative mRNA splicing, exhibits unique(More)
Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS)/DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a human disorder characterized by a number of phenotypic features including cardiovascular defects. Most VCFS/DGS patients are hemizygous for a 1.5-3.0 Mb region of 22q11. To investigate the etiology of this disorder, we used a cre-loxP strategy to generate mice that are hemizygous for a 1.5 Mb(More)
Transcription factors regulate tissue patterning and cell fate determination during development; however, expression of early regulators frequently abates upon differentiation, suggesting that they may also play a role in maintaining an undifferentiated phenotype. The transcription factor paired box 3 (Pax3) is expressed by multipotent neural crest(More)
Pax3 is a transcription factor expressed in the dorsal neural tube and somite of the developing embryo. It plays critical roles in pre-migratory neural crest cells and in myogenic precursors of skeletal muscle. Pax3-deficient Splotch embryos display neural tube and neural crest defects and lack hypaxial muscles. We have created a new allele of Splotch by(More)
Pax6, a transcription factor containing the bipartite paired DNA-binding domain, has critical roles in development of the eye, nose, pancreas, and central nervous system. The 2.5 A structure of the human Pax6 paired domain with its optimal 26-bp site reveals extensive DNA contacts from the amino-terminal subdomain, the linker region, and the(More)
Vertebrate limb tendons are derived from connective cells of the lateral plate mesoderm. Some of the developmental steps leading to the formation of vertebrate limb tendons have been previously identified; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for tendinous patterning and maintenance during embryogenesis are largely unknown. The eyes absent (eya)(More)
Most stem cells are not totipotent. Instead, they are partially committed but remain undifferentiated. Upon appropriate stimulation they are capable of regenerating mature cell types. Little is known about the genetic programmes that maintain the undifferentiated phenotype of lineage-restricted stem cells. Here we describe the molecular details of a nodal(More)