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Antibodies against nuclear self-antigens are characteristic of systemic autoimmunity, although mechanisms promoting their generation and selection are unclear. Here, we report that B cells containing the Y-linked autoimmune accelerator (Yaa) locus are intrinsically biased toward nucleolar antigens because of increased expression of TLR7, a single-stranded(More)
The light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) are a superfamily of chlorophyll-binding proteins present in all photosynthetic eukaryotes. The Lhc genes are nuclear-encoded, yet the pigment-protein complexes are localized to the thylakoid membrane and provide a marker to follow the evolutionary paths of plastids with different pigmentation. The LHCs are divided into(More)
Cryptomonads have acquired photosynthesis through secondary endosymbiosis: they have engulfed and retained a photosynthetic eukaryote. The remnants of this autotrophic symbiont are severely reduced, but a small volume of cytoplasm surrounding the plastid persists, along with a residual nucleus (the nucleomorph) that encodes only a few hundred genes. We(More)
Cryptomonads and chlorarachniophytes acquired photosynthesis independently by engulfing and retaining eukaryotic algal cells. The nucleus of the engulfed cells (known as a nucleomorph) is much reduced and encodes only a handful of the numerous essential plastid proteins normally encoded by the nucleus of chloroplast-containing organisms. In cryptomonads and(More)
Recruitment of PI3K to the cell membrane is an indispensable step in normal lymphocyte proliferation and activation. In this study we identify PI3K as an important signaling molecule for maintaining basal T and B lymphocyte motility and homing in the intact lymph node. Pharmacological inhibition of PI3K catalytic isoforms exerted broad effects on basal(More)
Carman. 2011b. Population exposure to a novel influenza A virus over three waves of infection. 2011. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA(R)cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system. Host inhibits replication of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in macrophages by(More)
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