Learn More
In this paper, we study echolocation by spectral analysis as a biomimetic, i.e., inspired by bats, mechanism to observe a realistic environment. We propose a method to localize, i.e., to estimate the distance and bearing of reflectors, on the basis of a time-frequency representation of the returned echo similar to the one derived by the bat's cochlea. The(More)
Diseases of humans and wildlife are typically tracked and studied through incidence, the number of new infections per time unit. Estimating incidence is not without difficulties, as asymptomatic infections, low sampling intervals and low sample sizes can introduce large estimation errors. After infection, biomarkers such as antibodies or pathogens often(More)
Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which(More)
In recent years, a great deal of research within the field of sound localization has been aimed at finding the acoustic cues that human listeners use to localize sounds and understanding the mechanisms by which they process these cues. In this paper, we propose a complementary approach by constructing an ideal-observer model, by which we mean a model that(More)
UNLABELLED This paper presents a calculation of the head related transfer function (HRTF) for the frontal hemisphere of the phyllostomid bat Phyllostomus discolor using an acoustic field simulation tool based on the boundary element method. From the calculated HRTF results, binaural interaural intensity differences (IIDs) are derived. THE RESULTS Region(More)
A core concept of infectious disease epidemiology is the abundance threshold, below which an infection is unable to invade or persist. There have been contrasting theoretical predictions regarding the nature of this threshold for vector-borne diseases, but for infections with an invertebrate vector, it is common to assume a threshold defined by the ratio of(More)
It has been argued that an important part of understanding bat echolocation comes down to understanding the morphology of the bat sound processing apparatus. In this Letter we present a method based on information theory that allows us to assess target localization performance of bat sonar, without a priori knowledge on the position, size, or shape of the(More)
Well-established theoretical models predict host density thresholds for invasion and persistence of parasites with a density-dependent transmission. Studying such thresholds in reality, however, is not obvious because it requires long-term data for several fluctuating populations of different size. We developed a spatially explicit and individual-based SEIR(More)
Camera traps have proven very useful in ecological, conservation and behavioral research. Camera traps non-invasively record presence and behavior of animals in their natural environment. Since the introduction of digital cameras, large amounts of data can be stored. Unfortunately, processing protocols did not evolve as fast as the technical capabilities of(More)