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The basic units of ecological and evolutionary processes are individuals. Network studies aiming to infer mechanisms from complex systems, however, usually focus on interactions between species, not individuals. Accordingly, the structure and underlying mechanisms of individual-based interaction networks remain largely unknown. In a common garden, we(More)
About 20 % of the natural grasslands in Sub-Saharan Africa have been converted to cropland and 80 % of the converted area is managed by small-scale farmers. Despite the large contribution of small-scale subsistence farming to agricultural expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa only few studies investigated the effects on insect biodiversity. We studied the effects(More)
Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to characterize patterns of covariation in CCDs and identified(More)
Appropriate sampling effort of interaction networks is necessary to extract robust indices describing the structure of species interactions. Here we show that time-invariant variation in the composition and diversity of interaction partners of plant individuals of the same species explains volatility in aggregate network statistics due to undersampling.(More)
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