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Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. While tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke, clinical use of tPA has been constrained to roughly 3% of eligible patients because of the danger of intracranial hemorrhage and a narrow 3 h time window for safe administration. Basic science… (More)
Outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is impaired by hyperglycemia, hypotension, and glutamate, and improved by insulin. Insulin reduces glutamate concentration, making it uncertain whether its beneficial effect accrues from euglycemia. Glucagon decreases CNS glutamate, lessens neuronal cell injury, and improves neurological scores in mice after TBI. In… (More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children and boys, and hypotension worsens outcome. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is upregulated more in males and reduces cerebral blood flow (CBF) after fluid percussion injury (FPI). Increased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) via phenylephrine… (More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity in children and boys are disproportionately represented. Hypotension is common and worsens outcome after TBI. Previous studies show that adrenomedullin, a cerebrovasodilator, prevented sex dependent impairment of autoregulation during hypotension after piglet fluid percussion brain injury (FPI).… (More)
OBJECTIVE N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced pial artery dilation (PAD) is reversed to vasoconstriction after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI). Tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) is up-regulated and the tPA antagonist, EEIIMD, prevents impaired NMDA PAD after FPI. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least three kinases, ERK,… (More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adrenomedullin (ADM) levels are increased in female, but remain unchanged in male, piglets after fluid percussion injury (FPI) of the brain. Subthreshold vascular concentrations of ADM restore impaired hypotensive pial artery dilation after FPI more in males than females. Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated… (More)
Let the (log-)prices of a collection of securities be given by a d–dimensional Lévy process Xt having infinite activity and a smooth density. The value of a European contract with payoff g(x) maturing at T is determined by E[g(XT)]. Let ¯ XT be a finite activity approximation to XT , where diffusion is introduced to approximate jumps smaller than a given… (More)
An order book consists of a list of all buy and sell offers, represented by price and quantity, available to a market agent. The order book changes rapidly, within fractions of a second, due to new orders being entered into the book. The volume at a certain price level may increase due to limit orders, i.e. orders to buy or sell placed at the end of the… (More)
Let (R, m) be a local commutative ring. Suppose that m is principal and that m 2 = 0. We give a complete description of the cellular lattice of perfect chain complexes of modules over this ring.
In this paper we prove certain properties of cellular and acyclic classes of chain complexes of modules over a commutative Noetherian ring. In particular we show that if X is finite and belongs to some cellular class C then Σ n HnX also belongs to C, for every n.