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Turbulence characteristics in the coastal ocean bottom boundary layer are measured using a submersible Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system with a sample area of 20 3 20 cm2. Measurements are performed in the New York Bight at elevations ranging from 10 cm to about 1.4 m above the seafloor. Recorded data for each elevation consists of 130 s of image(More)
Eighty-five patients with knee injuries were included in a 4 month retrospective study that compared the relative accuracy of the Lachman test, the anterior drawer sign, and the pivot shift test. All examinations were performed under anesthesia and followed by arthroscopy, which confirmed 22 injuries. Of all ACL injuries occurring within 2 weeks of(More)
Seven sets of 2D particle image velocimetry data obtained in the bottom boundary layer of the coastal ocean along the South Carolina and Georgia coast [at the South Atlantic Bight Synoptic Offshore Observational Network (SABSOON) site] are examined, covering the accelerating and decelerating phases of a single tidal cycle at several heights above the(More)
Six sets of particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the bottom boundary layer of the coastal ocean are examined. The data represent periods when the mean currents are higher, of the same order, and much weaker than the wave-induced motions. The Reynolds numbers based on the Taylor microscale (Re ) are 300–440 for the high, 68–83 for the moderate, and(More)
The optical characteristics of phase-locked semiconductor laser arrays are formulated in terms of the array supermodes, which are the eigenmodes of the composite-array waveguide, by using coupled-mode theory. These supermodes are employed to calculate the near fields, the far fields, and the difference in the longitudinal-mode oscillation wavelengths of the(More)
Avector approach to tracing the path of a laser beam through an optical system containing movable plane mirrors is described, which permits a unified treatment of a number of basic mirror-scanning devices. We show that the scan field produced by the mirror-scanning system is a curved surface with a straight line as its generating element. The cross section(More)
We present a theoretical model and its experimental verification for speckle-induced noise in laser-based bar-code-scanner systems. We measured the dependence of the signal-to-speckle-noise ratio on distance, spot size, and detector size. Analyses of the power spectra of both the speckle noise and of the measured surface profiles of different substrates(More)
The European Energy Exchange (EEX) day ahead spot market for electricity in Germany shows significant variations in prices between peak and off-peak hours. Being able to shift electricity production from offpeak hours to peak hours improves the profit from CHP-plant operation significantly. Installing a big thermal store at a CHP-plant makes it possible to(More)
Theoretical topics encountered in engineering analysis of diffraction-free beams are addressed. These topics are the following: synthesizing a class of diffraction-free beams with noncircular transverse irradiance distributions, e.g., elliptical beams; the effect of Gaussian apodization on sidelobe control; and mode selection that allows one to synthesize a(More)