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BACKGROUND Endogenous retroviral sequences (ERVs) are integral parts of most eukaryotic genomes and vastly outnumber exogenous retroviruses (XRVs). ERVs with a relatively complete structure were retrieved from the genetic archives of humans and chickens, diametrically opposite representatives of vertebrate retroviruses (over 3300 proviruses), and analyzed,(More)
This paper reports the main findings of a large-scale study of subsidized psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy. More than 400 people in various phases, before, during and after subsidized psychoanalysis or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, were followed up for a period of three years with personal interviews, questionnaires and official(More)
About 8 per cent of the human genome consists of human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), which are remains from ancient infections. The HERVs may give rise to transcripts or affect the expression of human genes. The first step in understanding HERV function is to classify HERVs into families. In this work we study the relationships of existing HERV(More)
BACKGROUND Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and ERV-like sequences comprise 8% of the human genome. A hitherto unknown proportion of ERV loci are transcribed and thus contribute to the human transcriptome. A small proportion of these loci encode functional proteins. As the role of ERVs in normal and diseased biological processes is not yet established,(More)
Class II human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), often referred to as mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-like or HERV-K elements, have similarities to several animal infectious retroviruses. Single clones from each of nine class II HERV groups (NMWV 1 to NMWV 9), isolated from a human breast cancer cell genomic library, were sequenced over a 244 bp stretch of(More)
Recently, we identified and classified 926 human endogenous retrovirus H (HERV-H)-like proviruses in the human genome. In this paper, we used the information to, in silico, reconstruct a putative ancestral HERV-H. A calculated consensus sequence was nearly open in all genes. A few manual adjustments resulted in a putative 9-kb HERV-H provirus with open(More)
The ERV3 locus at chromosome 7q11 is a much studied human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequence, owing to an env open reading frame (ORF) and placental RNA and protein expression. An analysis of the human genome demonstrated that ERV3 is one of a group of 41 highly related elements (ERV3-like HERVs) which use proline, isoleucine, or arginine tRNA in their(More)
However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. Abstract— About eight percent of the human genome consists of human endogenous(More)
The majority of human endogenous retroviral HERV-H elements in the human genome have large deletions in pol and lack most of env, 5-10% are more or less complete with a potentially immunosuppressive transmembrane protein-encoding env region. Spliced HERV-H env transcripts were detected in T-cell leukaemia cell lines and lymphocytes from healthy blood donors(More)
Borna disease virus (BDV) has five major open reading frames, which encode the proteins p40, p23, gp18, p57 and p190. By analogy with other negative-strand RNA viruses, p40 is a putative nucleoprotein and p23 is a putative phosphoprotein. These proteins are known to form complexes with each other and with the polymerase protein in other viruses. In this(More)