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For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe(More)
Eukaryotic genomes contain many endogenous retroviral sequences (ERVs). ERVs are often severely mutated, therefore difficult to detect. A platform independent (Java) program package, RetroTector (ReTe), was constructed. It has three basic modules: (i) detection of candidate long terminal repeats (LTRs), (ii) detection of chains of conserved retroviral(More)
BACKGROUND Endogenous retroviral sequences (ERVs) are integral parts of most eukaryotic genomes and vastly outnumber exogenous retroviruses (XRVs). ERVs with a relatively complete structure were retrieved from the genetic archives of humans and chickens, diametrically opposite representatives of vertebrate retroviruses (over 3300 proviruses), and analyzed,(More)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in(More)
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) were identified and characterized in three avian genomes to gain insight into early retroviral evolution. Using the computer program RetroTector to detect relatively intact ERVs, we identified 500 ERVs in the chicken genome, 150 in the turkey genome, and 1,200 in the zebra finch genome. Previous studies suggested that(More)
Long terminal repeats (LTRs, consisting of U3-R-U5 portions) are important elements of retroviruses and related retrotransposons. They are difficult to analyse due to their variability. The aim was to obtain a more comprehensive view of structure, diversity and phylogeny of LTRs than hitherto possible. Hidden Markov models (HMM) were created for 11 clades(More)
BACKGROUND Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and ERV-like sequences comprise 8% of the human genome. A hitherto unknown proportion of ERV loci are transcribed and thus contribute to the human transcriptome. A small proportion of these loci encode functional proteins. As the role of ERVs in normal and diseased biological processes is not yet established,(More)
About 8 per cent of the human genome consists of human endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), which are remains from ancient infections. The HERVs may give rise to transcripts or affect the expression of human genes. The first step in understanding HERV function is to classify HERVs into families. In this work we study the relationships of existing HERV(More)
Class II human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), often referred to as mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-like or HERV-K elements, have similarities to several animal infectious retroviruses. Single clones from each of nine class II HERV groups (NMWV 1 to NMWV 9), isolated from a human breast cancer cell genomic library, were sequenced over a 244 bp stretch of(More)
BACKGROUND Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are surviving traces of ancient retrovirus infections and now reside within the human DNA. Recently HERV expression has been detected in both normal tissues and diseased patients. However, the activities (expression levels) of individual HERV sequences are mostly unknown. RESULTS We introduce a generative(More)