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Secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 by effector T cells is an essential mechanism of self-limitation during infection. However, the transcriptional regulation of IL-10 expression in proinflammatory T helper (Th) 1 cells is insufficiently understood. We report a crucial role for the transcriptional regulator Blimp-1, induced by(More)
The amounts of the polyamines putrescine, spermine and spermidine as well as the Na,K-ATPase activity have been determined in the developing chick brain. The amounts of spermine and spermidine per gram fresh weight do not change significantly, the amount of putrescine declines until the 17th day of incubation after which an increase takes place. Spermine(More)
1. The effects of several phenols, anilines and aliphatic alcohols on yeast plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and purine transport system as well as on Na+, K(+)-ATPase and adenosine uptake by Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were investigated. 2. In all cases an inhibition was observed, which could be correlated with the octanol/water partition coefficients of(More)
The H(+)-ATPase of the plasma membrane from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated, purified and reconstituted into asolectin liposomes. The kinetics of ATP hydrolysis have been compared for the H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane, in a protein/lipid/detergent micelle (isolated enzyme) and in asolectin proteoliposomes (reconstituted enzyme). In all three(More)
The action of a series of tetraphenylborate ion (TPB) derivatives on yeast cells was studied by electro-rotation of the pre-treated cells. TPB derivatives in which all four phenyl groups were substituted with fluorine, chlorine or trifluoromethyl were much more toxic than the unsubstituted compound, the effect increasing dramatically with increasing size of(More)
The toxicity of 31 phenols was studied by electro-rotation of yeast cells. Control yeast cells show both anti-field and co-field rotation, depending upon the field frequency applied. After treatment with supra-threshold amounts of phenols the anti-field rotation is weakened or abolished and a stronger co-field rotation can be seen. The proportion of cells(More)
The use of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a test system for predicting the toxicity of xenobiotics is described. Compared to eukaryotic microorganisms this system is two to three times more sensitive but needs more care in handling. In the study of the effects of various phenol derivatives on CHO cell growth and on an important functional membrane(More)
The influence of different growth conditions on the phospholipid composition and on two membrane functions, the Mg-ATPase and the purine transport system, was investigated. Addition of cholinechloride to the growth medium led to a certain rise in the amount of phosphatidylcholine, whereas supplementation with ethanolamine resulted in a considerably higher(More)
1. An improved filtration method is introduced to perform kinetic investigations on the chitin synthase reaction. This method is especially suited for the assay of a large number of samples necessary in enzyme kinetic studies. 2. From initial rate data the possibility could be excluded that the two-substrate reactions occurs by a random or a ping-pong(More)