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Schwann cells in developing and regenerating peripheral nerves express elevated levels of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. Neurotrophins are key mediators of peripheral nervous system myelination. Our results show that myelin formation is inhibited in the absence of functional p75NTR and enhanced by blocking TrkC activity. Moreover, the enhancement of(More)
The developmental process of myelination and the adult regenerative process of remyelination share the common objective of investing nerve axons with myelin sheaths. A central question in myelin biology is the extent to which the mechanisms of these two processes are conserved, a concept encapsulated in the recapitulation hypothesis of remyelination. This(More)
NGF binds to two receptors, p75NTR and TrkA. The endosomal trafficking of receptors is of emerging importance for the understanding of their signaling. We compared the endocytic trafficking of the two NGF receptors in PC12 cells. Both p75NTR and TrkA were internalized in response to NGF and colocalized with early endosomes. However, surprisingly, the(More)
Axons dictate whether or not they will become myelinated in both the central and peripheral nervous systems by providing signals that direct the development of myelinating glia. Here we identify the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) as a potent regulator of the axonal signals that control myelination of TrkA-expressing dorsal root ganglion neurons(More)
Glia constitute 90% of cells in the human nervous system, but relatively little is known about their functions. We have been focusing on the potential synaptic roles of glia in the CNS. We recently found that astrocytes increase the number of mature, functional synapses on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by sevenfold and are required for synaptic maintenance(More)
Although knowledge of the functions of neurotrophins has advanced rapidly in recent years, studies concerning the involvement of neurotrophins in glial-neuronal interactions rarely extend further than their roles in supporting the survival and differentiation of neuronal cells. In this study endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and(More)
Current methods for studying central nervous system myelination necessitate permissive axonal substrates conducive to myelin wrapping by oligodendrocytes. We have developed a neuron-free culture system in which electron-spun nanofibers of varying sizes substitute for axons as a substrate for oligodendrocyte myelination, thereby allowing manipulation of the(More)
Cell polarity is critical in various cellular processes ranging from cell migration to asymmetric cell division and axon and dendrite specification. Similarly, myelination by Schwann cells is polarized, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we show that the polarity protein Par-3 localizes asymmetrically in Schwann cells at the axon-glial(More)
Endogenous neurotrophins positively and negatively regulate migration of premyelinating Schwann cells before the initiation of myelination. Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) acting through the TrkC receptor tyrosine kinase stimulates Schwann cell migration via the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. We previously demonstrated that TrkC directly phosphorylates and activates Dbs,(More)
The oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) arises from the subventricular zone (SVZ) during early vertebrate development to migrate and proliferate along axon tracts before differentiating into the myelin-forming oligodendrocyte. We demonstrate that the spatial and temporal regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation depends intimately on the axonal(More)