Jon W. Williamson

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R-R interval (RRI) changes were recorded from 15 healthy volunteers in response to volitional unloaded cycling and passively induced cycling (PC). PC was also combined with electrical stimulation (n = 5) to increase muscle mechanoreceptor activation. The electrocardiogram and leg electromyographic activity were continuously sampled by computer at 1,000 Hz,(More)
OBJECTIVES Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific rehabilitation strategy that enhances functional locomotion in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI). Supraspinal centers may play an important role in the recovery of over-ground locomotor function in patients with motor-incomplete SCI. The purpose of this study was to(More)
Ten healthy subjects were evaluated at rest and at 5 min of unloaded active (AC) and passive (PC) cycling. Passive limb movements were accomplished using a tandem bicycle with a second rider performing the movements. We measured heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), oxygen uptake (VO2), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and(More)
The autonomic adjustments to exercise are mediated by central signals from the higher brain (central command) and by a peripheral reflex arising from working skeletal muscle (exercise pressor reflex), with further modulation provided by the arterial baroreflex. Although it is clear that central command, the exercise pressor reflex and the arterial(More)
1. The insular cortex has been implicated as a region of cortical cardiovascular control, yet its role during exercise remains undefined. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether the insular cortex was activated during volitional dynamic exercise and to evaluate further its role as a site for regulation of autonomic activity. 2.(More)
The influence of respiration on the mean blood pressure $$\bar P_{\text{a}}$$ and R-R interval responses at the onset of dynamic exercise was studied in 15 healthy subjects who performed 4 s of unloaded cycling at 1.5–2.0 Hz, 4 s of Valsalva manoeuvre at 5.3 kPa, and a combination of both, each during a 12-s long apnoea at total lung capacity. The R-R(More)
BACKGROUND Aerobic power declines with age. The degree to which this decline is reversible remains unclear. In a 30-year longitudinal follow-up study, the cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training in 5 middle-aged men previously trained in 1966 were evaluated to assess the degree to which the age-associated decline in aerobic power is attributable to(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether central command activated regions of the insular cortex, independent of muscle metaboreflex activation and blood pressure elevations. Subjects (n = 8) were studied during 1) rest with cuff occlusion, 2) static handgrip exercise (SHG) sufficient to increase mean blood pressure (MBP) by 15 mmHg, and(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiac mechanisms involved in cardiovascular adjustments during postexercise circulatory occlusion (OCCL). METHOD Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral vascular(More)
The purpose was to compare patterns of brain activation during imagined handgrip exercise and identify cerebral cortical structures participating in "central" cardiovascular regulation. Subjects screened for hypnotizability, five with higher (HH) and four with lower hypnotizability (LH) scores, were tested under two conditions involving 3 min of 1) static(More)