Jon Scaffidi

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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented for detection of several Group I and II elements (e.g., Na, Ca, Li, and K), as well as Mn and CaOH, in bulk aqueous solution at pressures exceeding 2.76 x 10(7) Pa (276 bar). Preliminary investigations reveal only minor pressure effects on the emission intensity and line width for all elements(More)
Use of dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with an orthogonal spark orientation is presented as a technique for trace metal analysis in bulk aqueous solutions. Two separate Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers operating at their fundamental wavelengths are used to form a subsurface, laser-induced plasma in a bulk aqueous solution that is spectroscopically(More)
Small, transportable Raman systems are being developed for stand-off Raman measurements at intermediate ranges (e.g. <20 m) for planetary measurements. Four variations of stand-off Raman systems are described that use a small telescope for light collection that is either fiber-optic or lens-coupled to a detection system. The performance of an acousto-optic(More)
Sequential-pulse (or dual-pulse) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) with an orthogonal spark orientation is described for elemental analysis of bulk aqueous solutions at pressures up to approximately 138 x 10(5) Pa (138 bar). The use of sequential laser pulses for excitation, when compared to single-pulse LIBS excitation (SP-LIBS), provides(More)
In the work reported herein, we have combined a short-lived femtosecond laser-induced plasma (LIP) and a longer-lived nanosecond LIP in a collinear pulse configuration to examine the source(s) of atomic emission and signal-to-noise enhancement in dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Initial studies indicate that the primary source of(More)
Despite the large neutral atomic and ionic emission enhancements that have been noted in collinear and orthogonal dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, the source or sources of these significant signal and signal-to-noise ratio improvements have yet to be explained. In the research reported herein, the combination of a femtosecond preablative air(More)
We have designed and demonstrated a standoff Raman system for detecting high explosive materials at distances up to 50 meters in ambient light conditions. In the system, light is collected using an 8-in. Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope fiber-coupled to an f/1.8 spectrograph with a gated intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) detector. A frequency-doubled Nd(More)
OBJECTIVE To undertake a survey of the world's clinical trial registries to provide current data on the number, nature, funding source and geographical distribution of pregnancy drug trials (PDT). DESIGN AND SETTING Comprehensive analysis of WHO-certified clinical trial registries. METHODS Sixteen registries containing 301 538 trials (168 826 active in(More)
Nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses were combined in an orthogonal preablation spark dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) configuration. Even without full optimization of interpulse alignment, ablation focus, large signal, signal-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-background ratio enhancements were observed for both copper and aluminum(More)