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OBJECTIVE A recent Children-of-Female-Twin design suggests that the association between maternal alcohol use disorder and offspring ADHD is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as prenatal nicotine exposure. We present here a complementary analysis using a Children-of-Male-Twin design examining the association between paternal(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the possible association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring outcomes of birth weight, pre-term birth, remediation, low scholastic achievement, regular smoking, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct problems while controlling for similar behaviors in parents. METHODS Using telephone interviews, data(More)
BACKGROUND Although substance use is associated with reduced educational attainment, this association may be owing to common risk factors such as socioeconomic disadvantage. We tested whether alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drug use and dependence were associated with lifetime educational attainment after controlling for familial background characteristics.(More)
The modifying effects of psychiatric and familial risk factors on age at smoking initiation, rate of progression from first cigarette to regular smoking, and transition time from regular smoking to nicotine dependence (ND) were examined in 1269 offspring of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Mean age of the sample was 20.1 years. Cox(More)
OBJECTIVE The Lifetime Drinking History (LDH) has been used to examine alcohol use throughout the life span. Given its retrospective nature, it is important to examine the validity of the assessment. METHOD Building on previous work establishing the reliability and validity of the LDH, the current study examined a sample of 1,295 men in the Vietnam Era(More)
BACKGROUND Parental substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with a range of negative offspring outcomes and psychopathology, but the clustering of these outcomes into subtypes has seldom been examined, nor have the familial and environmental contexts of these subtypes been reported. The present study examines the clustering of offspring lifetime(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports in adults have suggested that the effects experienced after cannabis use can be described in terms of positive and negative subtypes that are heritable and are associated with abuse and dependence. This study extends existing research by inclusion of adolescents and young adults in an offspring of twins design which makes it(More)
OBJECTIVE Using an offspring-of-twins design, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to paternal alcoholism during the child's first 12 years will increase offspring risk for subsequent alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD Structured psychiatric interviews assessed history of psychiatric and substance-use disorders in Vietnam Era Twin Registry fathers (n =(More)
OBJECTIVE Religious affiliation is inversely associated with alcohol dependence (AD). Our previous findings indicated that when a religious affiliation differentiated itself from cultural norms, then high-risk adolescents (those having parents with alcoholism history) raised with these affiliations exhibited fewer AD symptoms compared with adolescents of(More)
In a Children of Twins (COT) design, the environmental and genetic risk of a child is, in part, dependent upon the status of the father and the father's cotwin. The logic of the COT method breaks down if the zygosity of the twin pair is confounded with the environment provided to the child (a version of the Equal Environment Assumption, EEA). If MZ twin(More)