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Quasi-experimental study designs, often described as nonrandomized, pre-post intervention studies, are common in the medical informatics literature. Yet little has been written about the benefits and limitations of the quasi-experimental approach as applied to informatics studies. This paper outlines a relative hierarchy and nomenclature of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition among extended care residents focusing on level of care (residential vs rehabilitation) and room placement with an MRSA-positive resident. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Extended care units at 2 healthcare systems in Maryland. PARTICIPANTS(More)
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are an important cause of hospital-acquired infections and an emerging infectious disease. VRE infections were resistant to standard antibiotics until quinupristin/dalfopristin (QD), a streptogramin antibiotic, was approved in 1999 for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections in people.(More)
BACKGROUND Patient-to-patient transmission of nosocomial pathogens has been linked to transient colonization of health care workers, and studies have suggested that contamination of health care workers' clothing, including white coats, may be a vector for this transmission. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study involving attendees of medical and(More)
Foodborne illness is an important problem among the elderly. One risk factor for foodborne illness and diarrhea-associated mortality among the elderly is residence in a long-term care facility (LTCF); thus, these facilities must implement measures to ensure safe food. To assess safe food practices, knowledge, and policies, we used a mailed,(More)
PURPOSE The impact of a pharmacy-managed program for providing education and discharge instructions for patients with heart failure (HF) was evaluated. METHODS A before-and-after quasiexperimental design was used to quantify the effect of a pharmacist-managed HF medication education and discharge instruction program on the incidence of 30-day readmission(More)
We assessed the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of patients co-colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) upon admission to the medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary-care facility between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003. Co-colonization was(More)
Studies of the association between inappropriate antibiotic therapy and mortality among bacteremic patients have generated conflicting findings. We systematically reviewed these studies to identify methodological heterogeneity that may explain the lack of agreement. We identified 51 articles that met the inclusion criteria, and we extracted the following(More)
OBJECTIVE Many hospitals utilize antimicrobial management teams (AMTs) to improve patient care. However, most function with minimal computer support. We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a computerized clinical decision support system for the management of antimicrobial utilization. DESIGN A randomized controlled trial in adult(More)
Accessory gene regulator (agr) dysfunction in Staphylococcus aureus has been associated with a longer duration of bacteremia. We aimed to assess the independent association between agr dysfunction in S. aureus bacteremia and 30-day in-hospital mortality. This retrospective cohort study included all adult inpatients with S. aureus bacteremia admitted between(More)