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This study describes the influence of relative humidity (RH) and reducing gases on the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (TCF) of ZnO-based film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR). Upon exposure to moisture or reducing gases, the TCF of FBAR decreased. Water molecules can replace adsorbed oxygen on the ZnO surface. This process was less(More)
This study describes a tested prototype for a controllable directional underwater thruster with no moving parts. During operation, a high-intensity acoustic wave creates directional water jets and the device moves itself in the opposite direction. When the underwater thruster moves along a non-vertical angle, it can produce straight backward thrust of 2.3(More)
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