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Two experiments were conducted to investigate the basis for higher voluntary intakes and increased alpha-linolenic acid content in milk from cows offered clover silages. Six cows with rumen and duodenal cannulae were used in a four-period changeover-design experiment. Cows received 8 kg/d of dairy concentrate and had ad libitum access to one of six silage(More)
It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary(More)
Balancing energy and nitrogen in the rumen is a key to both profitability and environmental sustainability. Four dairy cows were used in a Latin square experimental design to investigate the effect of severe nitrogen underfeeding (110 vs. 80% of requirements) and the type of carbohydrate consumed [neutral detergent fiber rich (FIB) vs. starch rich (STA)] on(More)
Four mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square change-over design experiment made up of four 4-wk periods to investigate the relationship between microbial protein flow to the duodenum and excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in the urine. Four dietary treatments based on ad libitum access to ryegrass silage were offered, with a(More)
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad(More)
Two experiments were carried out to determine the effects of feeding grass silages differing in their water-soluble carbohydrate content, with or without red clover silage, on the efficiency of nutrient use. High-sugar grass, control grass, and red clover were ensiled in laboratory silos for use in an in vitro experiment (Exp. 1). For an in vivo experiment(More)
During the clinical phase of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a significant decrease was observed in the ratio of muscle glycogen to plasma L-lactic acid concentrations in BSE infected field case and experimentally infected dairy cattle compared with healthy control cattle (P<0.001), this being due to changes in the concentration of both metabolites(More)
Bacterial predation by protozoa has the most deleterious effect on the efficiency of N use within the rumen, but differences in activity among protozoal groups are not completely understood. Two in vitro experiments were conducted to identify the protozoal groups more closely related with rumen N metabolism. Rumen protozoa were harvested from cattle and 7(More)
This study compared flows of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) at the duodenum with corresponding yields in milk. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered 4 dietary treatments, based on different ratios of ryegrass silage and concentrates (80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65 on a dry matter basis), in a 4 x 4 Latin square design(More)
During the preclinical phase of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), significantly increased concentrations of lactic acid were measured in the blood of infected dairy cows. Other plasma metabolites, including alanine, leucine, serine, and glutamic acid, also showed significantly altered concentrations in the preclinical BSE animals compared to a control(More)