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Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. The diagnosis and management of food allergy(More)
Although naturally occurring smallpox was eliminated through the efforts of the World Health Organization Global Eradication Program, it remains possible that smallpox could be intentionally released. Here we examine the magnitude and duration of antiviral immunity induced by one or more smallpox vaccinations. We found that more than 90% of volunteers(More)
We have identified a tyrosinase gene mutation in several patients with classic, tyrosinase-negative (type IA) oculocutaneous albinism. This mutation, which results in a proline----leucine substitution at codon 81 of the tyrosinase polypeptide (EC, was observed in 20% (6 of 30) of oculocutaneous albinism alleles from independent probands, but it(More)
BACKGROUND One of the most troublesome features of atopic dermatitis (AD) is its chronic relapsing nature, and there is a lack of published evidence on the best treatment strategy for long-term management of the disease. OBJECTIVE To compare an intermittent dosing regimen of fluticasone propionate (FP) cream 0.05% (twice per week) with its vehicle base in(More)
We have identified three different tyrosinase gene mutant alleles in four unrelated patients with type IB ("yellow") oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and thus have demonstrated that type IB OCA is allelic to type IA (tyrosinase negative) OCA. In an inbred Amish kindred, type IB OCA results from homozygosity for a Pro----Leu substitution at codon 406. In the(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry skin and a hyperactive immune response to allergens, 2 cardinal features that are caused in part by epidermal barrier defects. Tight junctions (TJs) reside immediately below the stratum corneum and regulate the selective permeability of the paracellular pathway. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the reliability of the eczema area and severity index (EASI) scoring system by assessing inter- and intra-observer consistency. DESIGN Training of evaluators, application, and assessment over 2 consecutive days. SETTING An academic center. PATIENTS Twenty adults and children with atopic dermatitis (AD); cohort 1 (10 patients > or = 8(More)
Studies of cell mediated immunity (CMI) in atopic dermatitis have demonstrated various defects and frequently contradictory results. The true nature of immune dysfunction remains uncertain. We approached this question by concurrently examining two aspects of CMI: delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity and in vitro lymphocyte transformation. Responses were(More)
A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid when used as fragrance ingredients q The RIFM expert panel This report summarizes scientific data relevant to the assessment of cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid (see Fig. 1 and Table 1). These substances are all used as fragrance and flavor(More)
BACKGROUND Loss-of-function null mutations R501X and 2282del4 in the skin barrier gene, filaggrin (FLG), represent the most replicated genetic risk factors for atopic dermatitis (AD). Associations have not been reported in African ancestry populations. Atopic dermatitis eczema herpeticum (ADEH) is a rare but serious complication of AD resulting from(More)