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OBJECTIVE Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) is a rare but serious consequence of the administration of oral polio vaccine (OPV). Intensified OPV administration has reduced wild poliovirus transmission in India but VAPP is becoming a matter of concern. METHODS We analysed acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data in order to estimate(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the prevalence and distribution of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women in Jamaica, and to explore risk factors associated with HPV infection. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study that took place in April-July 2010 with 852 sexually-active women, 16-49 years of age, who had attended a selected public or(More)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the following: Librarians Rebecca Satterthwaite and Nancy Pulsipher, and all CDC library staff, and Osvaldo Jil, Library of Universidad de Chile, for assistance with the literature search and retrieving full text articles. Marla Martinez, CDC, for assistance with management of refer-assistance with data abstraction.(More)
BACKGROUND Seasonal influenza is a viral disease whose annual epidemics are estimated to cause three to five million cases of severe illness and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Vaccination is the main strategy for primary prevention. METHODS To assess the status of influenza vaccination in the Americas, influenza vaccination data reported to the Pan(More)
In 2003, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) adopted a resolution calling for rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) elimination in the Americas by the year 2010. To accomplish this goal, PAHO advanced a rubella and CRS elimination strategy including introduction of rubella-containing vaccines into routine vaccination programs accompanied by(More)
Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive(More)
In the region of the Americas, goals for the elimination of endemic measles and rubella/congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) by the year 2000 and 2010, respectively were established. The successful implementation of measles elimination strategies in the region of the Americas resulted in the interruption of endemic measles transmission in 2002 and tremendous(More)
Rubella virus infection is typically diagnosed by the identification of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in serum, but approximately 50% of serum samples from rubella cases collected on the day of rash onset are negative for rubella virus-specific IgM. The ability to detect IgM in sera and oral fluids was compared with the ability to(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the duration of protection of pentavaent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) against rotavirus hospitalizations in Nicaragua, a developing country in Central America. METHODS We conducted a case-control study at 4 hospitals from 2007 through 2010, including 1016 children hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus diarrhea, 4930 controls(More)