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In this study Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine lipid and carbohydrate content over time in the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus subspicatus grown in batch culture in limiting concentrations of nitrogen (N). Both algae exhibited restricted cell division and increased cell size following(More)
In numerous plant signal transduction pathways, Ca2+ is a versatile second messenger which controls the activation of many downstream actions in response to various stimuli. There is strong evidence to indicate that information encoded within these stimulus-induced Ca2+ oscillations can provide signalling specificity. Such Ca2+ signals, or 'Ca2+(More)
Powdery mildew fungi are biotrophic pathogens that form a complex interface, the haustorium, between the host plant and the parasite. The pathogen acts as an additional sink, competing with host sinks, resulting in considerable modification of photoassimilate production and partitioning within the host tissue. Here, we examine the factors that may(More)
Here we demonstrate that fruit from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) H(+)/cation exchangers (CAX) have more calcium (Ca2+) and prolonged shelf life when compared to controls. Previously, using the prototypical CAX1, it has been demonstrated that, in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, CAX transporters(More)
Calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) are essential nutrients required for normal plant growth and development, and transport processes play a key role in regulating their cellular levels. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains four P(2A)-type ATPase genes, AtECA1 to AtECA4, which are expressed in all major organs of Arabidopsis. To elucidate the(More)
Regulation of Ca(2+) transport determines the duration of a Ca(2+) signal, and hence, the nature of the biological response. Ca(2+)/H+ antiporters such as CAX1 (cation exchanger 1), play a key role in determining cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Analysis of a full-length CAX1 clone suggested that the CAX1 open reading frame contains an additional 36 amino acids at(More)
The CrCAX1 gene encoding a Ca2+/H+ and Na+/H+ exchanger was cloned and characterized from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to begin to understand the mechanisms of cation homeostasis in this model organism. CrCAX1 was more closely related to fungal cation exchanger (CAX) genes than those from higher plants but has structural(More)
The regulation of ions within cells is an indispensable component of growth and adaptation. The plant SOS2 protein kinase and its associated Ca(2+) sensor, SOS3, have been demonstrated to modulate the plasma membrane H(+)/Na(+) antiporter SOS1; however, how these regulators modulate Ca(2+) levels within cells is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that(More)
The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy has received considerable interest, but if microalgal biofuel production is to be economically viable and sustainable, further optimization of mass culture conditions are needed. Wastewaters derived from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities potentially provide cost-effective and(More)
Heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) are essential micronutrients for plant metabolism but when present in excess, these, and non-essential metals such as Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+), can become extremely toxic. Thus mechanisms must exist to satisfy the requirements of cellular metabolism but also to protect cells from(More)