Jon K Pittman

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Heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+) are essential micronutrients for plant metabolism but when present in excess, these, and non-essential metals such as Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+), can become extremely toxic. Thus mechanisms must exist to satisfy the requirements of cellular metabolism but also to protect cells from(More)
In numerous plant signal transduction pathways, Ca2+ is a versatile second messenger which controls the activation of many downstream actions in response to various stimuli. There is strong evidence to indicate that information encoded within these stimulus-induced Ca2+ oscillations can provide signalling specificity. Such Ca2+ signals, or 'Ca2+(More)
In this study Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine lipid and carbohydrate content over time in the freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus subspicatus grown in batch culture in limiting concentrations of nitrogen (N). Both algae exhibited restricted cell division and increased cell size following(More)
The Arabidopsis Ca(2+)/H(+) transporter CAX1 (Cation Exchanger1) may be an important regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Here, we describe the preliminary localization of CAX1 to the tonoplast and the molecular and biochemical characterization of cax1 mutants. We show that these mutants exhibit a 50% reduction in tonoplast Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport(More)
Cation levels within the cytosol are coordinated by a network of transporters. Here, we examine the functional roles of calcium exchanger 1 (CAX1), a vacuolar H+/Ca2+ transporter, and the closely related transporter CAX3. We demonstrate that like CAX1, CAX3 is also localized to the tonoplast. We show that CAX1 is predominately expressed in leaves, while(More)
Regulation of Ca(2+) transport determines the duration of a Ca(2+) signal, and hence, the nature of the biological response. Ca(2+)/H+ antiporters such as CAX1 (cation exchanger 1), play a key role in determining cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Analysis of a full-length CAX1 clone suggested that the CAX1 open reading frame contains an additional 36 amino acids at(More)
Calcium transporters that mediate the removal of Ca(2+) from the cytosol and into internal stores provide a critical role in regulating Ca(2+) signals following stimulus induction and in preventing calcium toxicity. The vacuole is a major calcium store in many organisms, particularly plants and fungi. Two main pathways facilitate the accumulation of Ca(2+)(More)
The Arabidopsis AtMTP family of genes encode proteins of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family, with several members having roles in metal tolerances. Four of the 11 proteins in the family form a distinct cluster on a phylogenetic tree and are closely related to ShMTP8, a CDF identified in the tropical legume Stylosanthes hamata that is implicated(More)
Powdery mildew fungi are biotrophic pathogens that form a complex interface, the haustorium, between the host plant and the parasite. The pathogen acts as an additional sink, competing with host sinks, resulting in considerable modification of photoassimilate production and partitioning within the host tissue. Here, we examine the factors that may(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal nutrient for plants. Recently, some of the genes responsible for transition metal transport in plants have been identified; however, only relatively recently have Mn2+ transport pathways begun to be identified at the molecular level. These include transporters responsible for Mn accumulation into the cell and release(More)