Jon Ivar Elstad

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AIMS Nordic elderly care has been restructured to obtain more efficiency. Among workers caring for the elderly, levels of perceived job stress could vary, due to understaffing and resource scarcity. This study examines how sickness absence and sickness presenteeism are associated with perceived job stress. METHODS Data were obtained by posting(More)
This study examines how socioeconomic inequalities in perceived health were reproduced as a cohort of adult men became 10 years older, and focuses especially on the role of social causation and health-selective mobility. A two-wave panel data set collected by the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway, is used, and the study is based on a sample of 9189(More)
BACKGROUND Studies from various countries have observed worse population health in geographical areas with more income inequality. The psychosocial interpretation of this association is that large income disparities are harmful to health because they generate relative deprivation and undermine social cohesion. An alternative explanation contends that the(More)
This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural'development influenced health inequalities by employment status(More)
BACKGROUND Using a lifecourse approach, this study examines whether childhood adversities act on adult health as latent or pathway effects, and whether not only childhood ill health and material deprivation, but also an adverse psychosocial environment in terms of stressful relations with parents contribute to later ill health. METHODS Lifecourse(More)
Studies indicate that inequalities in women's health are associated with women's marital, parental and employment status. The causal mechanisms which generate these inequalities are linked to social change at the macro level. The present study asks whether patterns of ill-health according to women's statuses have changed during recent decades in Norway.(More)
BACKGROUND Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross-national differences with respect to their design and(More)
BACKGROUND There is universal agreement that higher mortality goes with lower income. Opinions differ on causality: the association may reflect the damaging effect of poverty on health and survival chances. Conversely, it may reflect selection/reverse causation: low income indicates health problems, and from health problems follow a higher risk of dying. (More)
Studies have revealed that relative poverty is associated with ill health, but the interpretations of this correlation vary. This article asks whether relative poverty among Norwegian adolescents is causally related to poor subjective health, i.e., self-reported somatic and mental symptoms. Data consist of interview responses from a sample of adolescents (N(More)
BACKGROUND The association between income inequality and societal performance has been intensely debated in recent decades. This paper reports how unmet need for medical care has changed in Europe during The Great Recession, and investigates whether countries with smaller income differences have been more successful than inegalitarian countries in(More)