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Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C19 steroid of adrenal origin. Notably, its secretion declines with age, a phenomenon referred to as the "adrenopause". For many years, the physiological significance of DHEA remained elusive. However, many studies have now shown that DHEA has significant immune modulatory function, exhibiting both immune stimulatory and(More)
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a recently discovered addition to the defensive armamentarium of neutrophils, assisting in the immune response against rapidly dividing bacteria. Although older adults are more susceptible to such infections, no study has examined whether aging in humans influences NET formation. We report that TNF-α-primed(More)
Physiological aging is accompanied by a marked reduction in natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) at the single cell level, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To address this issue, we isolated NK cells from healthy young (≤ 35 years) and old (≤ 60 years) subjects and examined the effect of age on events fundamental to the process of NKCC.(More)
Nosocomial infections are a common occurrence in patients following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and are associated with an increased risk of mortality, longer length of hospital stay, and poor neurological outcome. Systemic immune suppression arising as a direct result of injury to the central nervous system (CNS) is considered to be primarily responsible(More)
Forming the first line of defence against virally infected and malignant cells, natural killer (NK) cells are critical effector cells of the innate immune system. With age, significant impairments have been reported in the two main mechanisms by which NK cells confer host protection: direct cytotoxicity and the secretion of immunoregulatory cytokines and(More)
A well-established feature of physiological ageing is altered immune function, a phenomenon termed immunesenescence. Thought to be responsible in part for the increased incidence and severity of infection reported by older adults, as well as the age-related decline in vaccine efficacy and autoimmunity, immunesenescence affects both the innate and adaptive(More)
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte and play a central role in the immune defense against rapidly dividing bacteria. However, they are also the shortest lived cell in the blood with a lifespan in the circulation of 5.4 days. The mechanisms underlying their short lifespan and spontaneous entry into apoptosis are poorly understood. Recently, the broad(More)
Traumatic injury results in a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a phenomenon characterised by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the circulation and immune cell activation. Released from necrotic cells as a result of tissue damage, damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are thought to initiate the SIRS response by activating(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Neutrophils are a key component of innate immunity. At sites of infection, they unleash cytotoxic molecules allowing them to kill invading pathogens. However, these molecules can also be deleterious to the host tissue. Therefore, neutrophils undergo apoptosis and are removed from the site of infection following elimination of the pathogen.(More)