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Inflammatory caspases, such as caspase-1 and -11, mediate innate immune detection of pathogens. Caspase-11 induces pyroptosis, a form of programmed cell death, and specifically defends against bacterial pathogens that invade the cytosol. During endotoxemia, however, excessive caspase-11 activation causes shock. We report that contamination of the cytoplasm(More)
Caspases are either apoptotic or inflammatory. Among inflammatory caspases, caspase-1 and -11 trigger pyroptosis, a form of programmed cell death. Whereas both can be detrimental in inflammatory disease, only caspase-1 has an established protective role during infection. Here, we report that caspase-11 is required for innate immunity to cytosolic, but not(More)
IFN receptor signaling induces cell-autonomous immunity to infections with intracellular bacterial pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-inducible guanylate binding protein (Gbp) proteins stimulate caspase-11-dependent, cell-autonomous immunity in response to cytoplasmic LPS. Caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis is triggered in IFN-activated macrophages(More)
The cysteine protease caspase-7 has an established role in the execution of apoptotic cell death, but recent findings also suggest involvement of caspase-7 during the host response to microbial infection. Caspase-7 can be cleaved by the inflammatory caspase, caspase-1, and has been implicated in processing and activation of microbial virulence factors.(More)
Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon in which Gram-negative bacteria use the toxic C-terminus of a large surface-exposed exoprotein to inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria upon cell-cell contact. Little is known about when and where bacteria express the genes encoding CDI system proteins and how these systems contribute to the(More)
Inflammasomes are sensors that serve as activation platforms for caspase-1 — a mechanism that set the prevailing paradigm for inflammatory caspase activation. A recent Nature paper by Shi et al. upends this paradigm by describing an unprecedented model for caspase activation whereby caspase-4, -5, and -11 directly bind their agonist, cytosolic LPS,(More)
Although a complete pathway of lipoic acid metabolism has been established in Escherichia coli, lipoic acid metabolism in other bacteria is more complex and incompletely understood. Listeria monocytogenes has been shown to utilize two lipoate-protein ligases for lipoic acid scavenging, whereas only one of the ligases can function in utilization of(More)
The sanctity of the cytosolic compartment is rigorously maintained by a number of innate immune mechanisms. Inflammasomes detect signatures of microbial infection and trigger caspase-1 or caspase-11 activation, culminating in cytokine secretion and obliteration of the replicative niche via pyroptosis. Recent studies have examined inflammatory caspase(More)
The process used to validate, verify, and test flight avionics control systems has produced software that is highly reliable. However, ever greater demands for reliability require new automated tools to improve existing processes. We use the Anna formal specification language and supporting tool set to develop a Test Range Oracle Tool (TROT) to automate the(More)
The process used to validate, verify, and test flight avionics control systems has produced software that is highly reliable. However, ever greater demands for reliability require new automated tools to improve existing processes. We used the Anna (Annotated Ada) formal specification language and supporting tool set to develop a Test Range Oracle Tool(More)