The evaluation procedure of a new laser-cooled caesium fountain primary frequency standard developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is described. The new standard, NIST-F1, is described in some detail and typical operational parameters are discussed. Systematic frequency biases for which corrections are made – second-order… (More)
The presence of spurious spectral components in the microwave excitation may induce frequency shifts in an atomic fountain frequency standard. We discuss how such shifts behave as a function of power variations of the excitation carrier and in the spur-to-carrier ratio. The discussion here is limited to the case of single-sideband spurs, which are generally… (More)
The National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing an optically pumped, cesium-beam primary frequency standard. The design follows from an analysis of systematic errors found in cesium beam standards. The details of the design, performance of major subsystems, and preliminary tests of the standard are presented .
—Many high-performance atomic frequency standards , including cesium fountains and most optical standards, operate with pulsed measurements, that is, an atomic sample is prepared for measurement, the measurement is made, and the process is repeated at fixed intervals. By introducing frequency modulation of the excitation coherent with the measurement cycle… (More)