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Inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease have entered clinical study as potential therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection. The clinical efficacy of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been limited by the emergence of resistant viral variants. Similarly, variants expressing resistance to protease inhibitors have been(More)
Indinavir (IDV) (also called CRIXIVAN, MK-639, or L-735,524) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. During early clinical trials, in which patients initiated therapy with suboptimal dosages of IDV, we monitored the emergence of viral resistance to the inhibitor by genotypic and phenotypic(More)
AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 333 was an open-label trial of a switch from saquinavir (SQV) hard capsules (SQVhc) to indinavir (IDV) or saquinavir soft-gel capsules (SQVsgc) after >48 weeks of prior treatment with SQVhc. Eighty-nine subjects received IDV or SQVsgc or continued to receive SQVhc and continued unchanged treatment with(More)
A series of highly potent, structurally novel, non-nucleoside RT inhibitors has been described. Low nanomolar concentrations of 5-chloro-3-(phenylsulfonyl)-indole-2-carboxamide (1) inhibit the HIV-1 RT enzyme in vitro and HTLVIIIb viral spread in MT-4 human T-lymphoid cells. Good oral bioavailability was observed in rhesus monkeys upon oral dosing of 1 as a(More)
Evidence is presented that indicates a deep crevice located on the surface of human rhinovirus type 14 is involved in virion attachment to cellular receptors. By using mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone, 11 mutants were created by single amino acid substitutions or insertions at positions 103, 155, 220, 223, and 273 of the structural protein VP1. Seven(More)
  • J H Condra
  • 1998
Resistance to the HIV-1 protease inhibitor indinavir involves the accumulation of multiple amino acid substitutions in the viral protease. A minimum of 11 amino acid positions have been identified as potential contributors to phenotypic resistance. Three or more amino acid substitutions in the protease are required before resistance becomes measurable (> or(More)
CONTEXT In HIV-infected patients having virologic suppression (plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL) with antiretroviral therapy, intermittent episodes of low-level viremia have been correlated with slower decay rates of latently infected cells and increased levels of viral evolution, but the clinical significance of these episodes is unknown. OBJECTIVE To(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral regimens containing HIV protease inhibitors suppress viremia in HIV-infected patients, but the durability of this effect is not known. OBJECTIVE To describe the 3-year follow-up of patients randomly assigned to receive indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in an ongoing clinical trial. DESIGN Open-label extension of a(More)
A universal influenza virus vaccine that does not require frequent updates and/or annual immunizations will offer significant advantages over current seasonal flu vaccines. The highly conserved influenza virus A M2 membrane protein has been previously suggested as a potential antigen target for such a vaccine. Here, we report systematic evaluation of M2(More)
A major problem with the use of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors as monotherapy has been an unacceptably high rate of emergence of resistance. To examine possible influences on the time to emergence of resistance, 24-week data were examined from five studies in which indinavir had been administered as monotherapy or as a(More)