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Inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease have entered clinical study as potential therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection. The clinical efficacy of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been limited by the emergence of resistant viral variants. Similarly, variants expressing resistance to protease inhibitors have been(More)
A cDNA clone containing the entire vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid gene was assembled by fusing portions of two partial clones. When the cDNA clone was inserted into a new general-purpose eucaryotic expression vector and introduced into appropriate host cells, abundant N-protein synthesis ensued. The expressed protein was indistinguishable from(More)
Indinavir (IDV) (also called CRIXIVAN, MK-639, or L-735,524) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. During early clinical trials, in which patients initiated therapy with suboptimal dosages of IDV, we monitored the emergence of viral resistance to the inhibitor by genotypic and phenotypic(More)
Human rhinoviruses are the major causative agents of the common cold in humans and have been divided into major and minor groups based on receptor specificity. cDNAs encoding the light and heavy chains of a murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes the major group receptor were cloned, abundantly expressed in Escherichia coli, and renatured into Fab(More)
A series of highly potent, structurally novel, non-nucleoside RT inhibitors has been described. Low nanomolar concentrations of 5-chloro-3-(phenylsulfonyl)-indole-2-carboxamide (1) inhibit the HIV-1 RT enzyme in vitro and HTLVIIIb viral spread in MT-4 human T-lymphoid cells. Good oral bioavailability was observed in rhesus monkeys upon oral dosing of 1 as a(More)
AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 333 was an open-label trial of a switch from saquinavir (SQV) hard capsules (SQVhc) to indinavir (IDV) or saquinavir soft-gel capsules (SQVsgc) after >48 weeks of prior treatment with SQVhc. Eighty-nine subjects received IDV or SQVsgc or continued to receive SQVhc and continued unchanged treatment with(More)
Evidence is presented that indicates a deep crevice located on the surface of human rhinovirus type 14 is involved in virion attachment to cellular receptors. By using mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone, 11 mutants were created by single amino acid substitutions or insertions at positions 103, 155, 220, 223, and 273 of the structural protein VP1. Seven(More)
A cDNA copy of the message encoding rat atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. ANF appears to be synthesized as a larger precursor, atrial pronatriodilatin. The cDNA has an open reading frame potentially encoding a protein of 152 amino acids, of which the first 24 amino acids strongly(More)
CONTEXT In HIV-infected patients having virologic suppression (plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL) with antiretroviral therapy, intermittent episodes of low-level viremia have been correlated with slower decay rates of latently infected cells and increased levels of viral evolution, but the clinical significance of these episodes is unknown. OBJECTIVE To(More)
  • J H Condra
  • 1998
Resistance to the HIV-1 protease inhibitor indinavir involves the accumulation of multiple amino acid substitutions in the viral protease. A minimum of 11 amino acid positions have been identified as potential contributors to phenotypic resistance. Three or more amino acid substitutions in the protease are required before resistance becomes measurable (> or(More)