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BACKGROUND Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a disease in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. The farming environment has consistently been associated with protection from childhood asthma and atopy, and interactions have been reported with polymorphisms in innate immunity genes. OBJECTIVE To detect gene-environment interactions for asthma and(More)
The first genome wide association study (GWAS) for childhood asthma identified a novel major susceptibility locus on chromosome 17q21 harboring the ORMDL3 gene, but the role of previous asthma candidate genes was not specifically analyzed in this GWAS. We systematically identified 89 SNPs in 14 candidate genes previously associated with asthma in >3(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies report that damp housing conditions are associated with respiratory symptoms. Less is known about mechanisms and possible effect modifiers. Studies of dampness in relation to allergic sensitization and eczema are scarce. OBJECTIVE We study the influence of damp housing conditions world-wide on symptoms and objective outcomes. (More)
OBJECTIVES Exposure to environments rich in microorganisms such as farms has been shown to protect against the development of childhood asthma and allergies. However, it remains unclear where, and how, farm and other rural children are exposed to microbes. Furthermore, the composition of the microbial flora is poorly characterised. We tested the hypothesis(More)
BACKGROUND Psychosocial stress during pregnancy including anxiety and depression is known to have adverse health effects on newborns. However, measuring these psychological constructs is complex with psychological, endocrinological, and physiological systems being affected. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), assumed to reflect long-term endocrine(More)
BACKGROUND There is a substantial body of evidence on the epidemiology of allergic conditions, which has advanced the understanding of these conditions. We aimed to systematically identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the epidemiology of allergic diseases to assess what has been studied comprehensively and what areas might benefit from further(More)
Exposure to farming environments has been shown to protect substantially against asthma and atopic disease across Europe and in other parts of the world. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys (GABRIELA) were conducted to determine factors in farming environments which are fundamental to protecting against asthma and atopic disease. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys have(More)
BACKGROUND The association between smoking and asthma or wheeze has been extensively studied in cross sectional studies, but evidence from large prospective cohort studies on the incidence of asthma during adolescence is scarce. METHODS We report data from a cohort study in two German cities, Dresden and Munich. The study population (n = 2936) was first(More)
BACKGROUND Farm milk consumption has been identified as an exposure that might contribute to the protective effect of farm life on childhood asthma and allergies. The mechanism of action and the role of particular constituents of farm milk, however, are not yet clear. OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate the farm milk effect and determine responsible milk(More)