Learn More
BACKGROUND Panel studies have been used to investigate the short term effects of outdoor particulate air pollution across a wide range of environmental settings. AIMS To systematically review the results of such studies in children, estimate summary measures of effect, and investigate potential sources of heterogeneity. METHODS Studies were identified(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of cognitive delay and possible associated dysmorphic features in children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero. DESIGN Retrospective study of children born to mothers with epilepsy. SETTING Regional epilepsy clinics in Liverpool and Manchester, UK. PARTICIPANTS Children aged between 6 months and 16(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known of the epidemiology of pneumothorax. Routinely available data on pneumothorax in England are described. METHODS Patients consulting in primary care with a diagnosis of pneumothorax in each year from 1991 to 1995 inclusive were identified from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Emergency hospital admissions for(More)
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure the inflammatory and autonomic responses of healthy humans and patients with coronary artery disease to controlled concentrations of two specific components of vehicle derived air pollution, carbon particles and sulphur dioxide (SO2). METHODS Placebo controlled, double blind, random order human challenge study examining the effects of(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM) has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from coarser fractions, this could affect health impact assessment of air(More)
Nitrogen dioxide is a common indoor pollutant. In the light of suggestions that outdoor air pollution can harm people with asthma, we investigated the effect of 1 h exposures to domestic concentrations of nitrogen dioxide on the airway response to house-dust mite (HDM) allergen in ten patients with mild asthma. Each subject breathed air, 100 ppb nitrogen(More)
BACKGROUND Over half the world is exposed daily to the smoke from combustion of solid fuels. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main contributors to the global burden of disease and can be caused by biomass smoke exposure. However, studies of biomass exposure and COPD show a wide range of effect sizes. The aim of this systematic(More)
The present birth cohort study investigated whether or not childhood wheeze and asthma are associated with parental exposure to occupational sensitisers that cause asthma. Parental occupation, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), was related to wheeze, asthma, ventilatory function, airway responsiveness and atopic sensitisation(More)
The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of maternal use of domestic chemicals during pregnancy on wheezing and lung function in children aged </=8.5 yrs and to explore the potential modifying effect of atopy. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a cohort study, a maternal composite household chemical exposure (CHCE) score(More)