Learn More
BACKGROUND Patients with severe persistent asthma who are inadequately controlled despite Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2002 step 4 therapy are a challenging population with significant unmet medical need. We determined the effect of omalizumab on clinically significant asthma exacerbations (requiring systemic corticosteroids) in the first omalizumab(More)
The APHEA 2 project investigated short-term health effects of particles in eight European cities. In each city associations between particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 microm (PM(10)) and black smoke and daily counts of emergency hospital admissions for asthma (0-14 and 15-64 yr), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the presence and magnitude of any relation between short term variations in ambient concentrations of particulate matter under 10 microns in diameter (PM10) and hospital admissions and mortality in Birmingham, United Kingdom. To find the relative risk associated with various concentrations of PM10, and to estimate the potential(More)
BACKGROUND Panel studies have been used to investigate the short term effects of outdoor particulate air pollution across a wide range of environmental settings. AIMS To systematically review the results of such studies in children, estimate summary measures of effect, and investigate potential sources of heterogeneity. METHODS Studies were identified(More)
BACKGROUND There is a strong need for laboratory in vitro test systems for the toxicity of airborne particulate matter and nanoparticles. The measurement of oxidative stress potential offers a promising way forward. OBJECTIVES A workshop was convened involving leading workers from the field in order to review the available test methods and to generate a(More)
Nitrogen dioxide is a common indoor pollutant. In the light of suggestions that outdoor air pollution can harm people with asthma, we investigated the effect of 1 h exposures to domestic concentrations of nitrogen dioxide on the airway response to house-dust mite (HDM) allergen in ten patients with mild asthma. Each subject breathed air, 100 ppb nitrogen(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with poorly controlled asthma have greater morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of omalizumab in patients with poorly controlled, moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. METHODS This was a randomized, open-label, multicentre, parallel-group study. A total of 312 patients (12-73 years) receiving >/=400(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, progressive respiratory disease that causes great morbidity and mortality despite treatment. There is evidence for airway inflammation in COPD. Cilomilast is an orally active, potent, selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, which in vitro can affect cells thought to be of clinical(More)
Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM) has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from coarser fractions, this could affect health impact assessment of air pollution,(More)
BACKGROUND Over half the world is exposed daily to the smoke from combustion of solid fuels. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main contributors to the global burden of disease and can be caused by biomass smoke exposure. However, studies of biomass exposure and COPD show a wide range of effect sizes. The aim of this systematic(More)