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The fragmentation of foods (breakage function) was measured in five humans on "bagged' single particles of 28 foods from three food groups. The change in the square root of the specific surface of the particles (the specific surface being the area of particle silhouettes, measured by image analysis, divided by original particle volume) produced by one bite,(More)
The rate of breakdown of food in mastication depends on the ratio of two mechanical properties of the food--the toughness and modulus of elasticity (Agrawal et al., 1997)--a result which can be predicted by an analysis of the energetics of fracture. The work input to produce food fragmentation is provided by the masticatory muscles, the activity levels of(More)
Brazil-nut particles were broken down and classified by sieves into four classes of particle size. Samples of these classes were suspended in plain yoghurt in varying concentrations and presented to nine humans for chewing. Both the number of chews made before swallowing and the time needed to swallow increased significantly with particle size and(More)
Simultaneous 3D articulograph and ultrasonograph techniques were used to monitor the chewing, swallowing, oral soft tissue and tongue movements of six subjects whilst consuming varying numbers (1, 2 and 4) of a confectionery product. Modifying the number of confectionery units had a variable effect on chewing, swallowing and oral soft tissue movements(More)
In this study we suggest that the presence of abrasives in food items lead to physiologic responses that reduce the amount of tooth loss because of abrasion. Subjects were presented with two pairs of two-colour chewing gum, one sample had 0.5 g of an abrasive powder added. Subjects were instructed to chew for 10 or 20 chewing strokes and then remove the(More)
If it could be shown that the human ear was sufficiently sensitive to describe TMJ sounds, there would be no need to use sophisticated electronic equipment to analyse the sounds. To test this, the ability of normal listeners to distinguish the subtle changes in position, pitch, duration and latency present in TMJ sounds is measured using triangle tests to(More)
After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two quantitative methods of describing the coatings, generated by a set(More)
Mammalian mastication is a process combining simultaneous food comminution and lubrication. The initiation of swallowing, which is voluntary, has been thought to depend on separate thresholds for food particle size and for particle lubrication. Instead of this duality, we suggest that swallowing is initiated when it is sensed that a batch of food particles(More)
PURPOSE To relate the Electrical Caries Monitor (ECM) and Resilience Caries Monitor (RCM) readings with clinical criteria used to define primary root carious lesions (PRCLs) in vitro. METHODS PRCLs were classified according to color, texture, hardness, cavitation, size and severity before ECM and RCM readings were recorded. RESULTS There was a poor but(More)
One of the major aims of the dental profession is the maintenance of oral function, specifically chewing ability. However, there are no generally accepted measures of chewing ability or even general agreement as to what level of tooth loss is deemed to require clinical intervention. There is therefore a need for simple objective tests of oral function. In(More)