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BACKGROUND Hypothermia is protective against brain injury after asphyxiation in animal models. However, the safety and effectiveness of hypothermia in term infants with encephalopathy is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of hypothermia in infants with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks who were admitted to the hospital at or before(More)
We prove a concise factor-of-two estimate for the failure-rate of optimally distinguishing an arbitrary ensemble of mixed quantum states, generalizing work of Holevo [Theor.] is used to derive a sub-optimal measurement which has an error rate within a factor of two of the optimal by construction. This measurement is quadratically weighted, and has appeared(More)
OBJECTIVE To reevaluate at age 8 years children who had participated during the first 3 years of life in a randomized clinical trial of special services for low-birthweight (LBW) premature infants. DESIGN Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of premature infants (< or = 37 weeks' gestation), stratified by 2 LBW groups (lighter [< or = 2000 g] and(More)
IMPORTANCE Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models. OBJECTIVE To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in(More)
BACKGROUND Extremely preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Early cranial ultrasound (CUS) is usual practice, but near-term brain MRI has been reported to better predict outcomes. We prospectively evaluated MRI white matter abnormality (WMA) and cerebellar lesions, and serial CUS adverse findings as predictors of outcomes at 18(More)
OBJECTIVE Methods are required to predict prognosis with changes in clinical course. Death or neurodevelopmental impairment in extremely premature neonates can be predicted at birth/admission to the ICU by considering gender, antenatal steroids, multiple birth, birth weight, and gestational age. Predictions may be improved by using additional information(More)
OBJECTIVE Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW; ≤ 1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of(More)
BACKGROUND Decisions regarding whether to administer intensive care to extremely premature infants are often based on gestational age alone. However, other factors also affect the prognosis for these patients. METHODS We prospectively studied a cohort of 4446 infants born at 22 to 25 weeks' gestation (determined on the basis of the best obstetrical(More)
It remains controversial as to whether neonatal seizures have additional direct effects on the developing brain separate from the severity of the underlying encephalopathy. Using data collected from infants diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and who were enrolled in an National Institute of Child Health and Human Development trial of(More)
Our objective was to investigate diverse clinical antecedents of total and regional brain volume abnormalities and white matter hyperintensity volume on term MRI in extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g) survivors. A consecutive cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who survived to 38 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 122) and a control group(More)