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BACKGROUND Hypothermia is protective against brain injury after asphyxiation in animal models. However, the safety and effectiveness of hypothermia in term infants with encephalopathy is uncertain. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of hypothermia in infants with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks who were admitted to the hospital at or before(More)
OBJECTIVE Late-onset sepsis (occurring after 3 days of age) is an important problem in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the current incidence of late-onset sepsis, risk factors for disease, and the impact of late-onset sepsis on subsequent hospital course, we evaluated a cohort of 6956 VLBW (401-1500 g) neonates admitted to the clinical(More)
BACKGROUND It is uncertain whether the rates and causes of early-onset sepsis (that occurring within 72 hours after birth) among very-low-birth-weight infants have changed in recent years, since antibiotics have begun to be used more widely during labor and delivery. METHODS We studied 5447 very-low-birth-weight infants (those weighing between 401 and(More)
BACKGROUND Ventilator-dependent premature infants are often treated with dexamethasone. However, the optimal timing of therapy is unknown. METHODS We compared the benefits and hazards of initiating dexamethasone therapy at two weeks of age and at four weeks of age in 371 ventilator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants (501 to 1500 g) who had(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the persistence of effects on health and development at age 5 years of the Infant Health and Development Program, an early childhood intervention that was provided to low-birth-weight (LBW) premature infants from neonatal discharge through age 3 years. DESIGN Randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, stratified by two LBW groups:(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to determine whether the risk of death or moderate/severe disability in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy increases with relatively high esophageal or skin temperature occurring between 6 and 78 hours after birth. METHODS This was an observational secondary study within the National Institute of Child Health and(More)
OBJECTIVES In the era before widespread use of inhaled nitric oxide, to determine the prevalence of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) in a multicenter cohort, demographic descriptors of the population, treatments used, the outcomes of those treatments, and variation in practice among centers. STUDY DESIGN A total of 385 neonates who received >/=50%(More)
We prove a concise factor-of-two estimate for the failure-rate of optimally distinguishing an arbitrary ensemble of mixed quantum states, generalizing work of Holevo [Theor.] is used to derive a sub-optimal measurement which has an error rate within a factor of two of the optimal by construction. This measurement is quadratically weighted, and has appeared(More)
OBJECTIVES Our goals were to determine the mortality risk for infants weighing 501 to 1500 gm according to gestational age, birth weight, and gender and to document birth weight-related changes in mortality and morbidity over a 5-year time period. STUDY DESIGN In this observational study perinatal data were prospectively collected by the 12 participating(More)
OBJECTIVE To document the mortality and morbidity of infants weighing 501-1500 g at birth according to gestational age, birthweight, and sex. STUDY DESIGN Prospective collection of perinatal events and neonatal course to 120 days of life, discharge, or death from January 1990 through December 2002 for infants born at 16 participating centers of the(More)