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Puberty onset is initiated by activation of neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The timing and progression of puberty may depend upon temporal coordination of two opposing central mechanisms--a restraint of GnRH secretion before puberty onset, followed by enhanced stimulation of GnRH release to complete reproductive maturation during(More)
It is well known that estrogen (E2) stimulates expression of progesterone receptors (PRs), thereby inducing responsiveness of several tissues to the actions of progesterone (P). Recent studies have also suggested, however, that biological actions previously ascribed to E2 alone may also be mediated by activation of E2-induced PRs, even independently of(More)
Progesterone's (P4) negative feedback actions in the female reproductive axis are exerted in part by suppression of hypothalamic GnRH release. Here we show that P4 can inhibit GnRH release by a mechanism independent of a nuclear P4 receptor (PR(A/B)). Injections of P4, but not vehicle, allopregnanolone, or dexamethasone, acutely suppressed LH levels in both(More)
W e are writing as scientists and editors of leading peer-reviewed journals that have published important contributions in the study of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). By signing this editorial, we affirm that regulatory decisions on EDCs should be made based on the best available science and expertise that involves, among others, reproductive(More)
Classic experiments have shown that ovulation and estrous cyclicity are under circadian control and that surgical ablation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) results in estrous acyclicity in rats. Here, we characterized reproductive function in the circadian Clock mutant mouse and found that the circadian Clock mutation both disrupts estrous cyclicity and(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to be a promising adjuvant for inducing immunity to cancer. We evaluated tumor lysate-pulsed DC in a Phase I trial of pediatric patients with solid tumors. Children with relapsed solid malignancies who had failed standard therapies were eligible. The vaccine used immature DC (CD14-, CD80+, CD86+, CD83-, and HLA-DR+)(More)
Noradrenergic locus ceruleus neurons are most active during waking and least active during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We expected REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) to increase norepinephrine utilization and activate the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene critical for norepinephrine production. Male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep with the platform(More)
Blood-borne hormones acting in the mediobasal hypothalamus, like those controlling food intake, require relatively direct access to target chemosensory neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC). An anatomical substrate for this is a permeable microvasculature with fenestrated endothelial cells in the ARC, a system that has awaited comprehensive documentation.(More)
The ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are gated by intracellular adenine nucleotides coupling cell metabolism to membrane potential. Channels comprised of Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits function in subpopulations of mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) neurons as an essential component of a glucose-sensing mechanism in these cells, wherein uptake and metabolism(More)
The push-pull perfusion technique was used in combination with a sequential bleeding schedule to estimate simultaneously the release patterns of LHRH and LH in unanesthetized ovariectomized sheep and to determine the temporal relationship between the release of these two hormones. Ovariectomized (greater than 30 days) ewes received unilateral push-pull(More)