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OBJECTIVE There is an established link between exposure to mercury and impaired childhood cognitive development and early motor skills. Thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), a preservative used in a number of children's vaccines, contains ethylmercury (an organic compound of mercury), and there has been concern that this exposure to mercury may be of some(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies suggest that prenatal stress is associated with long-term disturbance in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, but evidence in humans is lacking. This study examined the long-term association between prenatal anxiety and measures of diurnal cortisol at age 10 years. METHODS Measures of cortisol were collected at(More)
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. It is assumed by many that this association is causal. Others suggest that observed associations are due to unmeasured genetic factors or other confounding factors. The authors compared risks of maternal smoking during pregnancy with those of(More)
IMPORTANCE Some small studies suggest that maternal postnatal depression is a risk factor for offspring adolescent depression. However, to our knowledge, no large cohort studies have addressed this issue. Furthermore, only 1 small study has examined the association between antenatal depression and later offspring depression. Understanding these associations(More)
Using data on 4,813 children from the ALSPAC cohort in Bristol, United Kingdom, recontacted in 1998-1999, the authors investigated whether intrauterine growth restriction (indexed by birth weight and length) was associated with behavioral problems at age 7 years. Childhood behavioral problems were measured by using a brief behavioral screening questionnaire(More)
BACKGROUND Patterns of wheezing during early childhood may indicate differences in aetiology and prognosis of respiratory illnesses. Improved characterisation of wheezing phenotypes could lead to the identification of environmental influences on the development of asthma and airway diseases in predisposed individuals. METHODS Data collected on wheezing at(More)
OBJECTIVE The study aimed to determine the cognitive effect of the Val108/158Met polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene in children before and during puberty. This polymorphism affects cognitive function in healthy adults and may contribute to risk for schizophrenia. METHOD COMT genotype was determined for 8,707 children from the(More)
BACKGROUND A growing number of studies suggest a link between timing of menarche and risk of depressive symptoms in adolescence, but few have prospectively examined the emergence of depressive symptoms from late childhood into adolescence. AIMS To examine whether girls who experience earlier menarche than their peers have higher levels of depressive(More)
We investigated the relationship between smoking status and depression symptom score in a large prospective cohort of women (n = 7,089) followed at regular intervals during and immediately following pregnancy. We wished to determine whether depression symptom score predicts subsequent likelihood of failed or successful smoking cessation attempts, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Genetic variants that contribute to the risk of psychiatric disorders may also affect normal variation in psychological function. Indeed, the behavioral effects of many genetic variants may be better understood as process-specific rather than disease-specific. A functional valine-to-methionine (Val(158)Met) polymorphism in the(More)