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OBJECTIVE To follow mothers' mood through pregnancy and after childbirth and compare reported symptoms of depression at each stage. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Avon. PARTICIPANTS Pregnant women resident within Avon with an expected date of delivery between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Symptom scores from the(More)
IMPORTANCE Some small studies suggest that maternal postnatal depression is a risk factor for offspring adolescent depression. However, to our knowledge, no large cohort studies have addressed this issue. Furthermore, only 1 small study has examined the association between antenatal depression and later offspring depression. Understanding these associations(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the psychological problems associated with bedwetting and combined (day and night) wetting in children aged around 7(1/2) years. METHODS Participants were a cohort of over 8000 children enrolled in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Parents completed postal questionnaires assessing common(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies suggest that prenatal stress is associated with long-term disturbance in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, but evidence in humans is lacking. This study examined the long-term association between prenatal anxiety and measures of diurnal cortisol at age 10 years. METHODS Measures of cortisol were collected at(More)
OBJECTIVE Although epidemiological surveys generally indicate declining rates of bedwetting with age, recent studies show that children with severe nocturnal enuresis have lower prevalence rates, which persist into adolescence. This study reports prevalence rates of both infrequent bedwetting (IB) and nocturnal enuresis (NE) at five time points during(More)
AIM To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. METHODS The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for suspected(More)
There has been a large but inconsistent literature on interactions between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and adversity on emotional disorders. We investigated these interactions in 4,334 children from a birth longitudinal cohort: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We measured emotional symptoms at 7(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescent risk behaviours such as smoking, alcohol use and antisocial behaviour are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of risk behaviour may vary between genders during adolescence. METHODS Analysis of data from a longitudinal birth cohort to assess the prevalence and distribution of multiple risk behaviours by(More)
BACKGROUND A putative interaction between cannabis and variation at rs4680 within the catechol-methyl-transferase (COMT) gene on psychosis has been reported, but not adequately replicated. AIMS To examine whether the relative risk of developing psychosis following use of cannabis is dependent upon variation within COMT. METHOD A longitudinal study of(More)
We investigated the relationship between smoking status and depression symptom score in a large prospective cohort of women (n = 7,089) followed at regular intervals during and immediately following pregnancy. We wished to determine whether depression symptom score predicts subsequent likelihood of failed or successful smoking cessation attempts, and(More)