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OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in the prison population of the Republic of Ireland and to examine risk factors for infection. DESIGN Cross sectional, anonymous, unlinked survey, with self completed risk factor questionnaire and provision of oral fluid specimen for antibody(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in entrants to Irish prisons and to examine risk factors for infection. DESIGN Cross sectional, anonymous survey, with self completed risk factor questionnaire and oral fluid specimen for antibody testing. SETTING Five of seven committal prisons(More)
AIMS To measure the frequency of syringe borrowing in young Irish injecting drug users (IDUs) and identify associated characteristics. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Addiction treatment services in Dublin. PARTICIPANTS Treated IDUs (N = 246). MEASUREMENTS Data on drug injecting and syringe borrowing in the previous 6 months. FINDINGS The(More)
In this study we tested the hypothesis that the initial cuff volume of the laryngeal mask airway influences emergence characteristics and postoperative laryngopharyngeal morbidity. One hundred and sixty adult patients undergoing minor surgery were randomly assigned for airway management with the laryngeal mask airway with either a fully inflated cuff(More)
Unsafe injecting results in increased rates of hepatitis C and HIV among populations of injecting drug users. It is well established that it is unsafe to use needles or syringes that have previously been used by another injecting drug user. There is growing evidence that it is unsafe to share a “cooker”, filter, or other injecting paraphernalia with another(More)
Within the U.K. Marine Mammals Stranding Program, analysis of brominated flame retardants began in 1999. Initially, the focus of attention was the brominated diphenyl ethers. Since the withdrawal of the pentamix and octamix polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations from the EU market prior to August 2004, two other high-volume products,(More)
Controls were placed on the production and use of the penta-mix polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulation within the European Union in 2004. In porpoises stranded or bycaught around the U.K., BDE congeners from this product predominate. Lipid-normalized concentrations of 9 (summed) BDE congeners in the blubber of 415 porpoises sampled during the(More)
In an earlier paper, we reported data indicating a sharp increase in hexabromocyclododecane concentrations in the blubber of 85 harbor porpoises from the UK, from about 2001 onward. That time trend was evaluated using data from 1994-2003, generated on a diastereoisomer basis using LC-MS. In this paper we report additional data for 138 animals collected(More)
The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of HIV infection and assess the level of equipment-sharing and unsafe sexual activity among attendees at a Dublin needle exchange. Using an anonymous unlinked approach, attendees were asked to complete a brief questionnaire and provide a sample of saliva for HIV testing. Of the 144 attendees eligible for(More)
BACKGROUND There is controversy over (1) the relative incidence of sore throat between the face mask (FM) and laryngeal mask airway (LMA), (2) the efficacy of LMA intracuff pressure reduction as a mechanism for minimizing sore throat, and (3) the relative incidence of sore throat with the LMA between males and females. In a randomized double-blind study,(More)