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The x-ray crystallographic structure of the heterodimeric plant toxin ricin has been determined at 2.8-A resolution. The A chain enzyme is a globular protein with extensive secondary structure and a reasonably prominent cleft assumed to be the active site. The B chain lectin folds into two topologically similar domains, each binding lactose in a shallow(More)
Ricin A chain is an N-glycosidase which removes a single adenine base from a conservative loop of 28S rRNA, thereby inactivating eukaryotic ribosomes. The mechanism of action has been proposed to include transition-state stabilization of an oxycarbonium ion on the substrate ribose by interaction with Glu 177. Conversion of Glu 177 to Gln reduces activity(More)
Ricin is an abundant protein component of Ricinus communis seeds (castor beans) that is exquisitely toxic to mammalian cells. It consists of an enzymic polypeptide that catalyzes the N-glycosidic cleavage of a specific adenine residue from 28S ribosomal RNA, joined by a single disulfide bond to a galactose (cell)-binding lectin. The enzymatic activity(More)
Higher plants contain multiple constitutively expressed proteins for defense against infection by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. One such class of proteins, the chitinases, are effective antifungal agents because they hydrolyze the insoluble beta-1,4-linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (chitin), which is the major component of the mycelial cell wall of(More)
Barley chitinase, bacterial chitosanase, and lysozymes from goose (GEWL), phage (T4L) and hen (HEWL) all hydrolyse related polysaccharides. The proteins share no significant amino-acid similarities, but have a structurally invariant core consisting of two helices and a three-stranded beta-sheet which form the substrate-binding and catalytic cleft. These(More)
The x-ray analysis of the monoclinic form of yeast tRNAPhe has been taken to a resolution of 2.5 A by the method of isomorphous replacement. The model proposed at 3 A has been confirmed and extended to reveal additional features of the tertiary structure and of the stereochemistry. An extensive hydrogen bonding network is described involving specific(More)
Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, RIPs, depurinate an invariant adenine from the 28S rRNA of eukaryotic ribosomes; they have evolved to near enzymatic perfection for this task. The N-glycosidase fold is conserved in plant and bacterial enzymes. RIPs can form complexes with cell surface recognition proteins that dramatically increase the cytotoxicity of the(More)
Ebulin l is a type-II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from the leaves of Sambucus ebulus L. As with other type-II RIP, ebulin is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of a toxic A chain and a galactoside-specific lectin B chain. A normal level of ribosome-inactivating N-glycosidase activity, characteristic of the A chain of type-II RIP, has(More)