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Sensitization of primary afferent neurons underlies much of the pain and tenderness associated with tissue injury and inflammation. The increase in excitability is caused by chemical agents released at the site of injury. Because recent studies suggest that an increase in voltage-gated Na+ currents may underlie increases in neuronal excitability associated(More)
1. Previously three voltage-gated K+ currents were described in neurons from mammalian sensory ganglia: two transient and one sustained. Because there is considerable variability in the gating properties of these three currents, we have investigated the possibility that this variability reflects the presence of additional currents in sensory neurons. 2.(More)
There is great interest in discovering new targets for pain therapy since current methods of analgesia are often only partially successful. Although protein kinase C (PKC) enhances nociceptor function, it is not known which PKC isozymes contribute. Here, we show that epinephrine-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and acetic acid-associated(More)
We have identified a mechanism, mediated by the epsilon isozyme of protein kinase C (PKCepsilon) in peripheral neurons, which may have a role in chronic inflammatory pain. Acute inflammation, produced by carrageenan injection in the rat hindpaw, produced mechanical hyperalgesia that resolved by 72 hr. However, for up to 3 weeks after carrageenan, injection(More)
A tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated Na+ current (TTX-R INa) appears to be the current primarily responsible for action potential generation in the cell body and terminals of nociceptive afferents. Although other voltage-gated Na+ currents are modulated by the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), or both, the second messenger(More)
We hypothesized that TRPV4, a member of the transient receptor family of ion channels, functions as a sensory transducer for osmotic stimulus-induced nociception. We found that, as expected for a transducer molecule, TRPV4 protein is transported in sensory nerve distally toward the peripheral nerve endings. In vivo single-fiber recordings in rat showed that(More)
We tested the hypothesis that noxious stimuli induce pain modulation by activation of supraspinal structures. We found that intense noxious stimuli (i.e., subdermal injection of capsaicin or paw immersion in hot water) induced profound attenuation of the jaw-opening reflex in the anesthetized rat; forepaw subdermal capsaicin also elevated the mechanical(More)
We investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in inflammatory hyperalgesia. Coinjection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) inhibited PGE2-induced hyperalgesia. L-NMA was also able to reverse that hyperalgesia. This suggests that NO contributes to the maintenance of, as well as to the(More)