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M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar(More)
It has been established that maternal leukocytes, conditioned by the mammary environment, cross the neonatal gut and circulate in the newborn calf. However, the impact of these cells on the development of neonatal immunity remains to be determined. This study examined the effects of maternal colostral leukocytes on development and maturation of neonatal(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of maternal cells or cellular components on neonatal immune responses to intracellular pathogens in calves. ANIMALS 15 Holstein calves. PROCEDURES Calves were fed whole colostrum, frozen colostrum, or cell-free colostrum within 4 hours after birth. Leukocytes were obtained from calves before feeding colostrum and 1, 2, 7,(More)
H7N9 has caused fatal infections in humans. A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale outbreaks in the human population. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), an avirulent paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector. In this work, we generated a recombinant PIV5 expressing the HA gene of H7N9 (PIV5-H7) and tested its efficacy against(More)
Different populations of mononuclear phagocytes (MO) show considerable diversity of cellular function including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis. Certain bacterial components enhance PGE2 biosynthesis differentially in selected populations of MO. Interleukin (IL)-10 is proposed to inhibit modulation of PGE2 biosynthesis by down-regulating prostaglandin(More)
BACKGROUND The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1) highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins(More)
Vaccines should protect genetically diverse populations. Therefore we tested the candidate "universal" influenza A matrix protein 2 (M2) vaccine in multiple mouse strains. Mice were primed with M2 DNA and boosted with M2 recombinant adenovirus (rAd). C57BL/6 (B6) mice developed no antibody or T-cell response to M2, while BALB/c responded strongly. CBA(More)
Influenza viruses often evade host immunity via antigenic drift and shift despite previous influenza virus infection and/or vaccination. Vaccines that match circulating virus strains are needed for optimal protection. Development of a universal influenza virus vaccine providing broadly cross-protective immunity will be of great importance. The nucleoprotein(More)
The zoonotic outbreak of H7N9 subtype avian influenza virus that occurred in eastern China in the spring of 2013 resulted in 135 confirmed human cases, 44 of which were lethal. Sequencing of the viral genome revealed a number of molecular signatures associated with virulence or transmission in mammals. We report here that, in the guinea pig model, a human(More)
Although it has been established that maternal leukocytes traffic from colostrum into the neonatal circulation, the effects of these cells on neonatal immunity are only beginning to be understood. This study examined the effects of maternal colostral leukocytes on development and maturation of neonatal antigen presenting cells. At birth, groups of neonatal(More)