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To prevent sexually transmitted HIV, the most desirable active ingredients of microbicides are antiretrovirals (ARVs) that directly target viral entry and avert infection at mucosal surfaces. However, most promising ARV entry inhibitors are biologicals, which are costly to manufacture and deliver to resource-poor areas where effective microbicides are(More)
The potential health benefits of green tea continue to attract public and scientific interests and are attributed in part to polyphenolic catechin constituents. Polyphenon E (Poly E) is a decaffeinated green tea catechin mixture containing about 50% epigallocatechin gallate and 30% other catechins. We evaluated the toxicity and genotoxicity of Poly E by(More)
An assay is described for the measurement of chemically-induced DNA repair in cultures of primary rat hepatocytes following in vivo treatment with genotoxic agents. Rats were exposed to chemicals then primary hepatocytes were isolated by liver perfusion and cultured with [3H]-thymidine. DNA repair was measured as unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) by(More)
Transgenic B6C3F1 and C57BL/6 mice containing a lambda shuttle vector that carries a lacI target and an alpha lacZ reporter gene have been constructed for use in in vivo mutagenesis assays. After chemical treatment of mice carrying the lacI target gene, genomic DNA is isolated and the shuttle vector is recovered by exposing the DNA to lambda phage packaging(More)
The in vivo rat hepatocyte DNA-repair assay is a valuable tool in assessing the genotoxic activity of chemical agents. An advantage of the system is that it reflects the complex patterns of uptake, distribution, metabolism, detoxification and excretion that actually occur in the whole animal. This article provides a typical procedure and guidelines for(More)
Transgenic rodent gene-mutation models provide relatively quick and statistically reliable assays for gene mutations in the DNA from any tissue. This report summarizes those issues that have been agreed upon at a previous IWGT meeting [Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 35 (2000) 253], and discusses in depth those issues for which no consensus was reached before. It(More)
Vancomycin, one of few effective treatments against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is nephrotoxic. The goals of this study were to (1) gain insights into molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity at the genomic level, (2) evaluate gene markers of vancomycin-induced kidney injury, and (3) compare gene expression responses after iv and ip(More)
The in vivo-in vitro hepatocyte DNA repair assay has been shown to be useful for studying genotoxic hepatocarcinogens. In addition, measurement of S-phase synthesis (SPS) provides an indirect indicator of hepatocellular proliferation, which may be an important mechanism in rodent carcinogenesis. This assay was used to examine 24 chemicals for their ability(More)
Drug discovery for malaria has been transformed in the last 5 years by the discovery of many new lead compounds identified by phenotypic screening. The process of developing these compounds as drug leads and studying the cellular responses they induce is revealing new targets that regulate key processes in the Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. We(More)